History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks)


        Chapter One: The Struggle for the Creation of a Social-Democratic Labour Party in Russia, (1883-1901)
            1. Abolition of Serfdom and the Development of Industrial Capitalism in Russia. Rise of the Modern Industrial Proletariat. First Steps of the Working-Class Movement
            2. Narodism (Populism) and Marxism in Russia. Plekhanov and His “Emancipation of Labour” Group. Plekhanov’s Fight Against Narodism. Spread of Marxism in Russia
            3. Beginning of Lenin’s Revolutionary Activities. St. Petersburg League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class
            4. Lenin’s Struggle Against Narodism and “Legal Marxism.” Lenin’s Idea of an Alliance of the Working Class and the Peasantry. First Congress of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party
            5. Lenin’s Fight Against “Economism.” Appearance of Lenin’s Newspaper Iskra
            Brief Summary

        Chapter Two: Formation of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party. Appearance of the Bolshevik and the Menshevik Groups Within the Party, (1901-1904)
            1. Upsurge of the Revolutionary Movement in Russia in 1901-04
            2. Lenin’s Plan for the Building of a Marxist Party. Opportunism of the “Economists.” Iskra’s Fight for Lenin’s Plan. Lenin’s Book What Is To Be Done? Ideological Foundations of the Marxist Party
            3. Second Congress of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party. Adoption of Program and Rules and Formation of a Single Party. Differences at the Congress and Appearance of Two Trends Within the Party: The Bolshevik and the Menshevik
            4. Splitting Activities of the Menshevik Leaders and Sharpening of the Struggle Within the Party After the Second Congress. Opportunism of the Menshevik. Lenin’s Book, One Step Forward, Two Steps Back. Organizational Principles of the Marxist Party
            Brief Summary

        Chapter Three: The Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks in the Period of the Russo-Japanese War and the First Russian Revolution, (1904-1907)
            1. Russo-Japanese War. Further Rise of the Revolutionary Movement in Russia. Strikes in St. Petersburg. Workers’ Demonstration Before the Winter Palace on January 9, 1905. Demonstration Fired Upon. Outbreak of the Revolution
            2. Workers’ Political Strikes and Demonstrations. Growth of the Revolutionary Movement Among the Peasants. Revolt on the Battleship Potemkin
            3. Tactical Differences Between Bolsheviks and Mensheviks. Third Party Congress. Lenin’s Two Tactics of Social-Democracy in the Democratic Revolution. Tactical Foundations of the Marxist Party
            4. Further Rise of the Revolution. All-Russian Political Strike of October 1905. Retreat of Tsardom. The Tsar’s Manifesto. Rise of the Soviets of Workers’ Deputies
            5. December Armed Uprising. Defeat of the Uprising. Retreat of the Revolution. First State Duma. Fourth (Unity) Party Congress
            6. Dispersion of the First State Duma. Convocation of the Second State Duma. Fifth Party Congress. Dispersion of the Second State Duma. Causes of the Defeat of the First Russian Revolution
            Brief Summary

        Chapter Four: The Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks in the Period of the Stolypin Reaction. The Bolsheviks Constitute Themselves an Independent Marxist Party, (1908-1912)
            1. Stolypin Reaction. Disintegration Among the Oppositional Intelligentsia. Decadence. Desertion of a Section of the Party Intelligentsia to the Enemies of Marxism and Attempts to Revise the Theory of Marxism. Lenin’s Rebutal of the Revisionists in His Materialism and Empirio-Criticism and His Defence of the Theoretical Foundations of the Marxist Party
            2. Dialectical and Historical Materialism
            3. Bolsheviks and Mensheviks in the Period of the Stolypin Reaction. Struggle of the Bolsheviks Against the Liquidators and Otzovists
            4. Struggle of the Bolsheviks Against Trotskyism. Anti-Party August Bloc
            5. Prague Party Conference, 1912. Bolsheviks Constitute Themselves an Independent Marxist Party
            Brief Summary

        Chapter Five: The Bolshevik Party During the New Rise of the Working-Class Movement Before the First Imperialist War (1912-1914)
            1. Rise of the Revolutionary Movement in the Period 1912-14
            2. The Bolshevik Newspaper Pravda. The Bolshevik Group in the Fourth State Duma
            3. Victory of the Bolsheviks in the Legally Existing Organizations. Continued Rise of the Revolutionary Movement. Eve of the Imperialist War
            Brief Summary

        Chapter Six: The Bolshevik Party in the Period of the Imperialist War. The Second Revolution in Russia (1914-March 1917)
            1. Outbreak and Causes of the Imperialist War
            2. Parties of the Second International Side With Their Imperialist Governments. Disintegration of the Second International into Separate Chauvinist Parties
            3. Theory and Tactics of the Bolshevik Party on the Question of War, Peace and Revolution
            4. Defeat of the Tsarist Army. Economic Disruption. Crisis of Tsardom
            5. The February Revolution. Fall of Tsardom. Formation of Soviets of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies. Formation of the Provisional Government. Dual Power
            Brief Summary

        Chapter Seven: The Bolshevik Party in the Period of Preparation and Realization of the October Socialist Revolution, (April 1917-1918)
            1. Situation in the Country After the February Revolution. Party Emerges from Underground and Passes to Open Political Work. Lenin Arrives in Petrograd. Lenin’s April Theses. Party’s Policy of Transition to Socialist Revolution
            2. Beginning of the Crisis of the Provisional Government. April Conference of the Bolshevik Party
            3. Successes of the Bolshevik Party in the Capital. Abortive Offensive of the Armies of the Provisional Government. Suppression of the July Demonstration of Workers and Soldiers
            4. The Bolshevik Party Adopts the Course of Preparing for Armed Uprising. Sixth Party Congress
            5. General Kornilov’s Plot Against the Revolution. Suppression of the Plot. Petrograd and Moscow Soviets Go Over to the Bolsheviks
            6. October Uprising in Petrograd and Arrest of the Provisional Government. Second Congress of Soviets and Formation of the Soviet Government. Decrees of the Second Congress of Soviets on Peace and Land. Victory of the Socialist Revolution. Reasons for the Victory of the Socialist Revolution
            7. Struggle of the Bolshevik Party to Consolidate the Soviet Power. Peace of Brest-Litovsk. Seventh Party Congress
            8. Lenin’s Plan for the Initial Steps in Socialist Construction. Committees of the Poor Peasants and the Curbing of the Kulaks. Revolt of the “Left” Socialist-Revolutionaries and Its Suppression. Fifth Congress of Soviets and Adoption of the Constitution of the R.S.F.S.R.
            Brief Summary

        Chapter Eight: The Bolshevik Party in the Period of Foreign Military Intervention and Civil War (1918-1920)
            1. Beginning of Foreign Military Intervention. First Period of the Civil War
            2. Defeat of Germany in the War. Revolution in Germany. Founding of the Third International. Eighth Party Congress
            3. Extension of Intervention. Blockade of the Soviet Country. Kolchak’s Campaign and Defeat. Denikin’s Campaign and Defeat. A Three-Months’ Respite. Ninth Party Congress
            4. Polish Gentry Attack Soviet Russia. General Wrangel’s Campaign. Failure of the Polish Plan. Rout of Wrangel. End of the Intervention
            5. How and Why the Soviet Republic Defeated the Combined Forces of British-French-Japanese-Polish Intervention and of the Bourgeois-Landlord-Whiteguard Counter-Revolution in Russia
            Brief Summary

        Chapter Nine: The Bolshevik Party in the Period of Transition to the Peaceful Work of Economic Restoration, (1921-1925)
            1. Soviet Republic After the Defeat of the Intervention and End of the Civil War. Difficulties of the Restoration Period
            2. Party Discussion on the Trade Unions. Tenth Party Congress. Defeat of the Opposition. Adoption of the New Economic Policy (NEP)
            3. First Results of NEP. Eleventh Party Congress. Formation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Lenin’s Illness. Lenin’s Co-operative Plan. Twelfth Party Congress
            4. Struggle Against the Difficulties of Economic Restoration. Trotskyites Take Advantage of Lenin’s Illness to Increase Their Activity. New Party Discussion. Defeat of the Trotskyites. Death of Lenin. The Lenin Enrolment. Thirteenth Party Congress
            5. The Soviet Union Towards the End of the Restoration Period. The Question of Socialist Construction and the Victory of Socialism in Our Country. Zinoviev-Kamenev “New Opposition.” Fourteenth Party Congress. Policy of Socialist Industrialization of the Country
            Brief Summary

        Chapter Ten: The Bolshevik Party in the Struggle for the Socialist Industrialization of the Country (1926-1929)
            1. Difficulties in the Period of Socialist Industrialization and the Fight to Overcome Them. Formation of the Anti-Party Bloc of Trotskyites and Zinovievites. Anti-Soviet Actions of the Bloc. Defeat of the Bloc
            2. Progress of Socialist Industrialization. Agriculture Lags. Fifteenth Party Congress. Policy of Collectivization in Agriculture. Rout of the Bloc of Trotskyites and Zinovievites. Political Duplicity
            3. Offensive Against the Kulaks. The Bukharin-Rykov Anti-Party Group. Adoption of the First Five-Year Plan. Socialist Emulation. Beginning of the Mass Collective-Farm Movement
            Brief Summary

        Chapter Eleven: The Bolshevik Party in the Struggle for the Collectivization of Agriculture, (1930-1934)
            1. International Situation in 1930-34. Economic Crisis in the Capitalist Countries. Japanese Annexation of Manchuria. Fascists’ Advent to Power in Germany. Two Seats of War
            2. From the Policy of Restricting the Kulak Elements to the Policy of Eliminating the Kulaks as a Class. Struggle Against Distortions of the Party Policy in the Collective-Farm Movement. Offensive Against the Capitalist Elements Along the Whole Line. Sixteenth Party Congress
            3. Policy of Reconstructing All Branches of the National Economy. Importance of Technique. Further Spread of the Collective-Farm Movement. Political Departments of the Machine and Tractor Stations. Results of the Fulfilment of the Five-Year Plan in Four Years. Victory of Socialism Along the Whole Front. Seventeenth Party Congress
            4. Degeneration of the Bukharinites Into Political Double-Dealers. Degeneration of the Trotskyite Double-Dealers Into a Whiteguard Gang of Assassins and Spies. Foul Murder of S. M. Kirov. Measures of the Party to Heighten Bolshevik Vigilance
            Brief Summary

        Chapter Twelve: The Bolshevik Party in the Struggle to Complete the Building of the Socialist Society. Introduction of the New Constitution, (1935-1937)
            1. International Situation in 1935-37. Temporary Mitigation of the Economic Crisis. Beginning of a New Economic Crisis. Seizure of Ethiopia by Italy. German and Italian Intervention in Spain. Japanese Invasion of Central China. Beginning of the Second Imperialist War
            2. Further Progress of Industry and Agriculture in the U.S.S.R. Second Five-Year Plan Fulfilled Ahead of Time. Reconstruction of Agriculture and Completion of Collectivization. Importance of Cadres. Stakhanov Movement. Rising Standard of Welfare. Rising Cultural Standard. Strength of the Soviet Revolution
            3. Eighth Congress of Soviets. Adoption of the New Constitution of the U.S.S.R.
            4. Liquidation of the Remnants of the Bukharin-Trotsky Gang of Spies, Wreckers and Traitors to the Country. Preparations for the Election of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. Broad Inner-Party Democracy as the Party’s Course. Election of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.




The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks) has traversed a long and glorious road, leading from the first tiny Marxist circles and groups that appeared in Russia in the eighties of the past century to the great Party of the Bolsheviks, which now directs the first Socialist State of Workers and Peasants in the world.

The C.P.S.U.(B.) grew up on the basis of the working-class movement in pre-revolutionary Russia; it sprang from the Marxist circles and groups which had established connection with the working-class movement and imparted to it a Socialist consciousness. The C.P.S.U.(B.) has always been guided by the revolutionary teachings of Marxism-Leninism. In the new conditions of the era of imperialism, imperialist wars and proletarian revolutions, its leaders further developed the teachings of Marx and Engels and raised them to a new level.

The C.P.S.U.(B.) grew and gained strength in a fight over fundamental principles waged against the petty-bourgeois parties within the working-class movement – the Socialist-Revolutionaries (and earlier still, against their predecessors, the Narodniks), the Mensheviks, Anarchists and bourgeois nationalists of all shades – and, within the Party itself, against the Menshevik, opportunist trends – the Trotskyites, Bukharinites, nationalist deviators and other anti-Leninist groups.

The C.P.S.U.(B.) gained strength and became tempered in the revolutionary struggle against all enemies of the working class and of all working people – against landlords, capitalists, kulaks, wreckers, spies, against all the hirelings of the surrounding capitalist states.

The history of the C.P.S.U.(B.) is the history of three revolutions: the bourgeois-democratic revolution of 1905, the bourgeois-democratic revolution of February 1917, and the Socialist revolution of October 1917.

The history of the C.P.S.U.(B.) is the history of the overthrow of tsardom, of the overthrow of the power of the landlords and capitalists; it is the history of the rout of the armed foreign intervention during the Civil War; it is the history of the building of the Soviet state and of Socialist society in our country.

The study of the history of the C.P.S.U.(B.) enriches us with the experience of the fight for Socialism waged by the workers and peasants of our country.

The study of the history of the C.P.S.U.(B.), the history of the struggle of our Party against all enemies of Marxism-Leninism, against all enemies of the working people, helps us to master Bolshevism and sharpens our political vigilance.

The study of the heroic history of the Bolshevik Party arms us with a knowledge of the laws of social development and of the political struggle, with a knowledge of the motive forces of revolution.

The study of the history of the C.P.S.U.(B.) strengthens our certainty of the ultimate victory of the great cause of the Party of Lenin-Stalin, the victory of Communism throughout the world.

This book sets forth briefly the history of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks).

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