Organising for the Victory of the Spanish People

(March 5, 1937)

José Díaz

There are important parallels in the approach of the Spanish and Chinese communist parties in the national liberation wars in the 1930s. In this document José Díaz argues for the establishment of a New Democratic parliamentary republic in the struggle against the Spanish Fascists. This was a necessity to unify the various political forces who were opposed to fascism but not necessarily supporters of revolutionary democracy. In the time of Lenin the tactics of revolutionary parliamentarism had been elaborated prior to the Russian revolution and these were universally adopted among communists at the Second Congress of the Communist International held in 1920. While the Baltic Republics in 1940 and the Czechoslovak revolution in 1948 are taken as major examples of the application of Leninist revolutionary parliamentarism, the instances of Spain and China are not normally taken into account. Let us recall that Mao and the CPC leaders participated for a period in the government together with Chiang-Kai shek in the national liberation struggle as did the Communist Party of Spain in the struggle against fascism. Today the writings of José Díaz are largely not part of the revolutionary equipment of the communist movement which is why it is valuable to have access to his writings in the Archival Materials of Revolutionary Democracy. Similarly the writings of Mao on revolutionary parliamentarism are not circulated. Such were the innovations of José Díaz in Marxist theory that some Russian historians have regarded him as the founder of People’s Democracy. The basis for this is that José Díaz during the course of the national liberation struggle in Spain between 1931-1939 considered that the ‘parliamentary republic of a new type’ could lead to a specific type of state where power would be shared in a coalition with the ‘left section of the bourgeoisie’ in the People’s Front which would play a decisive role in society. The parallels with the notion of New Democracy projected in Eastern Europe after the defeat of Fascism and the views of Mao in the national liberation struggle against Japanese imperialism after 1935 are unmistakeable. The views of José Díaz further may be seen in the application of revolutionary parliamentarism visible in the Czechoslovak revolution and the suggestions of J.V. Stalin for the formation of People’s Democracy in the ‘Anglo-Saxon’ countries such as Britain, the US, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. These superceded the earlier notions of revolutions based on immediate Socialist revolution in the imperialist states founded on Soviet power which had been prevalent before 1935. It is instructive to note that after the Second World War Stalin and the CPSU (b) recommended that in all countries, whether imperialist, medium level capitalist states or in the colonial and dependent countries the immediate stage of revolution, emerging from the people’s and national liberation fronts would be of a people’s democratic character.

Vijay Singh.


A. Badayev. ‘The Bolsheviks in the Tsarist Duma.’

The Communist Party and Parliament, Theses Adopted by the Communist International,1920, Kamgar Prakashan, 2015.

Interview Given by Mao Tse-tung to Mr. Wang Kung-Tah, Correspondent of the Associated Press. 

Jan Kozak. 1961. ‘How Parliament Can Play a Revolutionary Part in the Transition to Socialism and the Role of the Popular Masses.’ Archival Materials, Books and Pamphlets,

José Díaz Archive,

T.V. Volokitina, G.P. Murashko, and A.F. Noskova. ‘Narodnaya demokratiya: mif ili realnost?’ Obsheshtvenno-politicheskie protsessy v vostochnoi evrope 1944- 1948 g., Moskva, ‘Nauka’, 1993, ctr.3.

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