The Counter-Revolutionary Plots of the Imperialists and the Khrushchevite Revisionists Have Met and Will Continue to Meet with Failure
A Great Historic Victory of Socialism in the People’s Republic of China
A Great Contribution to the Struggle Against Imperialism and Modern Revisionism, to the Triumph of Revolution and Socialism throughout the World
All counter-revolutionary forces — the imperialists with the U.S. imperialists at the top, the modern revisionists with the Soviet renegade leaders at the head and the various reactionaries — have savagely attacked the Communist Party of China and comrade Mao Tse-tung; in particular they have attacked with the most vicious slanders the great proletarian cultural revolution which is successfully unfolding now in the People’s Republic of China. The black banner of this ferocious anti-Marxist campaign has been taken over now by the treacherous leaders of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU).
Why are they doing this? What are their aims? This is because of the blows that the plot worked out and implemented by the Khrushchov revisionists since the death of J. Stalin, against socialism and the world revolutionary and Marxist-Leninist movement has received and is receiving at present. The Chinese Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution which is being carried out under the leadership of the- Chinese Communist Party and in line with Comrade Mao Tse-tung’s teachings, is another heavy blow at the hostile plans of the Khrushchovites, for it revealed and is smashing with a revolutionary resoluteness the revisionists who had wormed their way into the C.P.C. and is doing away with any possibility that leads to revisionist degeneration.
The Counter-revolutionary Plots of the Imperialists and the Khrushchovite Revisionists Have Met and will Continue to Meet with Failure
It has already been plainly proved that one of the means preferred by the U.S. imperialists and the Khrushchovite revisionists to undermine socialism and the world communist movement is that of «peaceful evolution», that of taking the fortress from within, relying on traitorous elements, revisionists and counter-revolutionaries, supporting and actively encouraging them, that by which the Khrushchovite clique itself came to power. As everybody knows, by employing putschist methods, by relying on cadres and strata of intellectuals who had become bureaucratic and bourgeois and who had degenerated and detached themselves from the people and opposed them, who had lost the revolutionary spirit and features and, taking advantage of the lack of vigilance on the part of the leadership of the CPSU after the death of J. Stalin, of the waverings, concessions and lack of determination to openly struggle against the revisionist danger by relying on the party and masses, the Khrushchovite clique camouflaged itself and seized the reins of state and the Party leadership in the Soviet Union. They used this to liquidate the proletarian dictatorship and to undermine the socialist achievements scored through the blood, struggle and titanic labor of the Soviet people under the leadership of Stalin. They also used it to help the revisionist elements and renegades in other socialist countries so that they might also follow their example, usurp the state power in their countries and pave the way to capitalist restoration.
The coming to power of the revisionists in the Soviet Union and in certain other socialist countries was the biggest imperialist-revisionist counterrevolutionary plot against the working class and the cause of socialism. But this plot did not mature in a single day. The counter-revolutionary political turn was prepared by the revisionists gradually. Behind masks and pseudo-Marxist and pseudo-socialist slogans they began to manipulate people’s minds, to make them politically confused, to strip the cadres, the communists and the working masses of the revolutionary ideals, and imbue them with bourgeois and petty bourgeois thinking, customs and manners. This was such an underground and silent work gnawing at and undermining the foundations of the socialist system from within, that through small, constant and unnoticeable quantitative changes prepared the outburst of the qualitative counter-revolutionary «coup», the liquidation of the proletarian dictatorship by substituting it with the revisionist dictatorship and pursued a bourgeois and capitalistic policy in all the domains of life in the country and in the international arena as well.
In this treacherous deed, the Khrushchovite revisionists had the help and the full support of U.S. imperialism and world reaction, of all the opportunist, liberal, social-democratic, pacifist and bourgeois trends in the world, who saw in the revisionists their faithful allies, an irreplaceable weapon in the struggle against socialism, revolution and the peoples’ freedom. By relying on the active backing of all the counter-revolutionary forces, on the authority and power of the socialist state, particularly of the Soviet Union, on demagogy as the highest «virtue», modern revisionism became the biggest and the most dangerous enemy the history of world communism has ever known. In alliance with imperialism, especially with U.S. imperialism, with all the reactionaries and the renegades from the working class, the modern revisionists undertook an all-round offensive against Marxism-Leninism, socialism and revolution for the degeneration and liquidation of the socialist camp and of the communist parties, for the strangling of the revolutionary movement, for the restoration and preservation of the capitalist system everywhere in the world.
But the counter-revolutionary plot; of the Khrushchovite revisionists met and could not but meet with the opposition and resolute resistance on the part of the PLA and CPC because of their principled unity and the unity between them and all the other fraternal Marxist-Leninist parties and the revolutionary communists of the whole world who are loyal to Marxism-Leninism and who actively fight for its purity, for the triumph of the socialist cause. They tore off the «Marxist-Leninist» mask of the Khrushchovite revisionist clique, held up before the eyes of the world their real face as renegades from and traitors to socialism, as allies and collaborators of imperialism and of world reaction. Trying to break down this resistance and to subjugate the Marxist-Leninist parties, the Khrushchovite revisionists undertook against them, particularly against the PLA and CPC, a wide hostile activity using all kinds of methods and forms — political, economic, military and ideological, exerting upon them all-round pressures and setting up fierce blockades, plotting against them in collaboration with the sworn enemies of socialism — the U.S. imperialists, the Titoite traitors, Indian reactionaries etc. At the same time they carried out revisionist subversive activities against our Parties, they put into operation all their secret service agencies, openly supported all anti-party and hostile elements, called on for counter-revolution to seize the fortress from within.
But, thanks to the resolute and principled stand and struggle of the CPC and PLA and all the other Marxist-Leninist parties 'and forces, the revisionists experienced defeats after defeats, one heavier than the other. The revisionist-imperialist blockades against the P.R. of Albania and the P.R. of China met with complete failure, being crushed to dust by the invincible force of the Albanian and Chinese people who are united to one single body around their Marxist-Leninist Parties. The open polemics that the Khrushchovite clique started against the PLA and CPC became a sharp weapon which dealt deadly blows at the revisionist traitors and tore off their mask. It further deepened the general crisis of modern revisionism and brought about the aggravation of the contradictions on the revisionist front itself; it hastened the process of differentiation in the ranks of the communist movement and drew a clear-cut borderline between the Marxist-Leninist revolutionaries and the revisionist renegades; it helped to organize the new Marxist-Leninist forces which number today tens of parties, organizations and groups on all continents.
It is precisely these irreparable defeats that compelled the present Soviet leaders to sacrifice their inspirer and ill-famed chief, N. Khrushchov, and to change the tactics and methods of struggle, to put on new masks, so as to deceive the communists and the peoples and thus, carry out in a clandestine way their Khrushchovite counter-revolutionary line without Khrushchov.
Faithfully adhering to N. Khrushchov’s line and sharing his aims, the new Soviet leaders with Brezhniev, Kosygin etc. at the head, having realized that Khrushchov’s «crude» line of the face-to-face struggle gave undesirable results for the revisionists, worked out the silent underground tactics counting mainly on their covert friends, on those factors and elements who could become a means of spreading revisionism and subverting the proletarian dictatorship also in China, Albania and elsewhere where doors are kept shut to Khrushchovite revisionism. The present treacherous Soviet leaders hastily ensured for themselves the support of U.S. imperialism for these plans. In fact, while the Khrushchovite revisionists increased their help for the disguised revisionists, intensified the underground activity against socialism and the Marxist-Leninist movement and set great store by the encouragement of the factors and the elements that could lead to the degeneration of socialism and of the proletarian dictatorship, the U.S. imperialists and their tools, on the other hand, intensified armed aggression and military pressures. These plans of the U.S. imperialists and the Khrushchovite revisionists are directed first of all against the PR of China, as well as against the PR of Albania and all the other countries and Marxist-Leninist parties which refuse to yield to the two big powers’ policy.
Nevertheless, these two fiendish tactics of the Khrushchovite revisionists and the U.S. imperialists met also with failure as they had done in the past. The CPC, the PLA and all the Marxist-Leninist revolutionaries forcibly exposed the treacherous features of the new leadership of the CPSU, uncovered from the very beginning their hostile plans, proved by facts that they not only faithfully followed Khrushchov’s revisionist line, but they were more dangerous, more malicious and more cunning than their defamed inspirer.
The principled consistent struggle that has been and is courageously being waged by the CPC, PLA and all the true revolutionaries to expose the treacherous plans and acts of the Soviet revisionist leaders inflicted a serious defeat on Brezhniev and Kosygin’s clique. But this is not their only defeat. The Khrushchovite revisionists and their treacherous plans suffered still another serious defeat: their hopes for a possible revisionist «revolution» to happen now and at some later day also in China or Albania were completely blasted.
The PLA and the CPC, as true Marxist-Leninist parties, have always struggled and continue to struggle consistently and courageously against the revisionist danger not only in the .international field i.e. against the revisionism of Khrushchov, Tito etc. as an enemy of the international communist movement but also in the domestic field i.e. against the danger of the emergence of revisionism in our countries. The experience of the emergence and spread of revisionism in the Soviet Union and certain other socialist countries has become a great lesson for our Party of Labor and the Communist Party of China. This teaches us that the true Marxist-Leninists must carry the struggle against the revisionist treason simultaneously on two fronts. This is the best guarantee that will lead to the final defeat of revisionism and to the final victory of Marxism-Leninism.
Drawing lessons from the revisionist tragedy that took place in the Soviet Union, the PLA has taken and will take all the necessary measures to uproot those phenomena which may lead to the spread of revisionism in our country, to shut the door now and for all time to the danger of usurpation of power by the revisionists and to the restoration of capitalism, to thereby ensuring the permanent development of socialist revolution in all fields, until socialist and communist society are completely built in our country. In this respect the PLA has carried out and is carrying out the class struggle correctly and in harmony with the concrete conditions of our country; it constantly strengthens the Party and the proletarian dictatorship, it carries out a resolute struggle against bureaucratism to further implement the mass line, successfully carries out the cultural and ideological revolution, strengthens the defensive might of the country and consistently adheres to the line of revolutionizing the life of the country.
All these ever ascending revolutionary measures of the PLA, worked out by it in the light of Marxist-Leninist teachings, on the basis of our historical experience in socialist construction, and of the bitter experience of the emergence, coming to power and of the spread of revisionism in the Soviet Union and certain other countries, measures which have found their lucid expression in many documents of our Party, especially, in the Open Letter of the Central Committee and in the historic materials of the 5th Congress of the Party, are a fatal blow at the hopes of the Khrushchovite and other revisionist renegades to undermine and to make our Party and socialist order degenerate from within, as they did to their own countries. These revolutionary measures which our Party will deepen further have closed the door to the emergence of revisionism and capitalist restoration in Albania.
In line with the strengthening of the proletarian dictatorship, with the liquidation of every possibility of the capitalist restoration and of the emergence and spread of revisionism, important revolutionary measures have been taken and are being taken also by the CPC, especially within the framework of the wide development of the Chinese great proletarian cultural revolution.
The Khrushchovite revisionists of the CPSU leadership are feeling that the ground is shaky under their feet. They are seeing that all their plans and hopes are collapsing one after the other. Therefore, not out of good will but out of necessity, they felt obliged to resume the «harsh» tactics of their master and instigator, N. Khrushchov, to fiercely attack the Marxist-Leninists and adopt his plans of an international meeting of communism etc. These are nothing else but desperate tactics the result of which has already been proved. It was precisely this line and these actions that led to N. Khrushchov’s fall. And there is no doubt that this line and these actions will bring about the ignominious end of the revisionist traitors — N. Khrushchov’s successors.
Though Brezhniev, Kosygin and Co. are adopting Khrushchov’s tactics, still there could be found some small formal variations. For instance, while N. Khrushchov made his attack against Marxism-Leninism, first and foremost, by openly attacking the PLA by name and, subsequently, by attacking the CPC and the PLA, his successors, at present, are adopting towards our Party, to a certain extent, the tactics of silence, perhaps hoping to impose silence also on it, that is, to make our Party give up its struggle against revisionism. It is not difficult to see through this fiendish aim, and the other aim to split up the PLA and the CPC. But they are trying in vain. The PLA has never and it will never fall into such a trap. Honestly doing its internationalist duty, in full unity with the CPC and all the true Marxist-Leninists, it has never and will never cease its principled struggle for the complete exposure of the revisionist treason. It will intensify even more this struggle till the complete and final defeat of Khrushchovite and Titoite revisionism and of international modem revisionism in general is reached.
The revisionist leaders of the CPSU, in agreement and cooperation with the U.S. and other imperialists, have concentrated now all the fire against the PR of China, the CPC and Comrade Mao Tse-tung, against the great proletarian cultural revolution that is developing in the PR of China. Among the many and various anti-Chinese materials published in the Soviet press, that which draws one’s attention is the editorial of «Pravda» dated November 27, titled «About the Events in China», in which the official stand of the Soviet leadership was presented and which was intended to prepare public opinion for the plenum of the C.C. of the CPSU on 12 of December, in which the revisionist L. Brezhniev attacked the Communist Party of China and pronounced his anathema against it. In these materials the 11th plenum of the CC of the CPC and personally Comrade Mao Tse-tung are frenziedly attacked. They are accused of nationalism, chauvinism and splitting activity, of anti-Sovietism and adventurism, of having violated the principles of scientific socialism and of having discredited the communist ideas etc. They wildly slander especially against the great proletarian cultural revolution, by painting it as something terrible and monstruous which not only is not in line with Lenin’s teachings but flagrantly opposes them, and so on and so forth.
Leaving aside the usual vulgar slanders against the Chinese great proletarian cultural revolution and CP of China, which do not differ at all from those written and propagandized by the most reactionary bourgeois papers and news agencies, the above mentioned article of «Pravda» and the materials of the plenum of the CC of the CPSU, are of interest, for they bring to light the apprehensions and the real aims of the Khrushchovite revisionist renegades and reveal their counterrevolutionary plot against the Communist Party and the PR of China.
By attacking Comrade Mao Tse-tung’s teachings and by bringing them in opposition to revolutionary Marxism-Leninism, Soviet revisionist leaders and their supporters try on the one hand to hit and reject revolutionary Marxism-Leninism and, on the other hand, by presenting their opportunist and counter-revolutionary views as the «purest and most authentic Marxism-Leninism», they hope, in this way, to stem the great influence exercised on the revolutionary peoples by the Marxist-Leninist ideas, which are being defended and creatively developed, under the present conditions, by the CPC headed by Comrade Mao Tse-tung.
By attacking with the wildest slanders the Chinese great proletarian cultural revolution and by trying to oppose it to Lenin’s teachings on cultural revolution, the Khrushchovite revisionists try to discredit the very ideas of this revolution which is to carry forward the cause of socialism and communism, to close the doors to the spread of revisionism and the restoration of capitalism in the socialist countries. In this way they hope to justify before the communists and the working people of their countries the bourgeois degeneration line which they are pursuing and to present it as a line which conforms to Lenin’s teachings. They hope to slow down and check the revolutionary awakening of the broad masses of the people and youth in their countries who see from the Chinese great proletarian cultural revolution a living example of how the people themselves, workers, peasants, soldiers and the people’s intellectuals bravely rise up and shout «stop» to the revisionist and treacherous elements, how they defend the Marxist-Leninist ideas and take the destiny of revolution and socialism into their own hands.
By painting the bourgeois and revisionist rightist elements who had been masked within the CPC but who received deadly blows by the Chinese great proletarian cultural revolution as «Martyrs of Marxism-Leninism», the Soviet renegade leaders take openly under protection and try to give «international» support to their secret agents on whom they had pinned their hopes to overthrow the revolutionary leadership of the CPC headed by Comrade Mao Tse-tung, to lead the CPC away from the resolute principled struggle against imperialism and modern revisionism, to subdue it, to degenerate the Party and the socialist order in China, to put People’s China on the road of capitalist restoration.
Enraged with the CP of China and by fiercely attacking it and Comrade Mao Tse-tung for their resolute and unswerving struggle against modern revisionism, particularly, against the treacherous leadership of the CPSU who have made common cause with U.S. imperialism, the Khrushchovite revisionists try to justify before their people and the peoples of all the world, their anti-China foreign policy, their hostile plots with the U.S. imperialists and different reactionary forces against the PR of China.
Finally, by wildly attacking the great cultural revolution, by spreading about it the most monstruous slanders and by unscrupulously falsifying its contents and aims, while on the other hand accusing People’s China of adventurous and warmongering policy, of chauvinistic and racial policy , in the international arena, the Khrushchovite revisionists and their followers try, thus, to isolate the CPC from the world communist and revolutionary movement, to isolate the PR of China from the world, to frighten and deviate the revolutionary peoples from their friendly attitude towards China.
But they will never succeed in attaining their counter-revolutionary aims and will suffer another irreparable defeat. The vigorous development of the great proletarian cultural revolution in the People’s Republic of China dealt a heavy blow at and annihilated the hopes of Khrushchovite revisionists and their allies to undermine the CPC and People’s China from within, to make them depart from the correct revolutionary Marxist-Leninist line which they follow. It cut off the roots of the bourgeois and revisionist degeneration in China. This is why it has won the sympathy of true revolutionaries and of all the peoples, while at the same time it brought curses and slanders on the part of imperialists, modern revisionists and all the reactionary forces in the world. This is an eloquent proof of the fact that the Chinese great proletarian cultural revolution is on the right path, that it is hitting the right target.
A Great Historic Victory of Socialism in the People’s Republic of China
The construction of socialism is a great revolutionary process that involves the transformation of the whole life of society — the material life and the spiritual life as well. An important task of this process is also the carrying out of the cultural revolution as an integral part of the socialist revolution. The classics of Marxism-Leninism have stressed in their works the need of the cultural revolution as a necessary condition for building the new socialist and communist society. Plans for building socialism involve, besides the industrialization of the country and the collectivization of agriculture, the carrying out of the cultural revolution. The main aim of this revolution, according to Lenin, is to destroy bourgeois culture and ideology and to build up the new socialist culture, proletarian in its contents and national in form, to make culture the property of the broad people’s masses and create the new intelligentsia coming from the laboring people and serving them.
To disguise their treachery and to slander against the People’s China, the revisionists are not against the cultural revolution in general for that would expose them; they are against the Chinese proletarian cultural revolution alone. Then, why is it that the great proletarian cultural revolution in China so greatly upsets the Khrushchovite revisionists, the U.S. imperialists and all the reactionary and counter-revolutionary forces in the world? This revolution is a deep social movement of vital importance for the destiny of socialism in China and for the cause of socialism and the revolutionary movement all over the world as well. Developed on the basis of Marxist-Leninist teachings which are applied and creatively developed by the CPC and Comrade Mao Tse-tung, through summing up the positive experience of socialist construction in China and other socialist countries, as well as the negative experience of the spread of revisionism in the Soviet Union and some other countries, the Chinese great proletarian cultural revolution constitutes a new very valuable contribution to the theory and practice of socialism. It sets before itself, within the country and in the international arena as well, a series of important objectives of political, ideological, cultural, organizational and military character.
First of all, the proletarian cultural revolution in China is a lucid expression of the class struggle between socialism and capitalism, of the fierce struggle which occurs in every country during the historical period of socialism, between two opposite roads, the socialist road and the capitalist one. Marxism-Leninism teaches us and historical experience has proved and is proving every day by new facts that this class struggle occurs in various forms in all fields of life — economic, political, spiritual, military, etc. Summing up the experience of the class struggle in the conditions of socialism, Lenin said: «The proletarian dictatorship is a bitter, bloody and bloodless struggle, violent and peaceful, military and economic, educational and administrative against the forces and traditions of the old society.» (Selected Works, Alb. edit., vol. 2, p. 633). He also said that «after the state power of capital has been overthrown and after the destruction of the bourgeois state and after the establishment of the proletarian dictatorship, the class struggle is never abolished (as the vulgar representatives of the old socialism and the old social-democracy imagine) but only changes its forms and in many respects becomes more merciless» (Ibid. p. 510).
The enemies of socialism, old and new, from within and from without, have never ceased for a moment their activity to liquidate the socialist system and to restore capitalism, by employing for this purpose, in accordance with the circumstances and the possibilities, two principal methods or by combining both of them: the method of preparing and launching a counter-revolution and armed aggression and that of «peaceful» degeneration of the socialist system, in other words, carrying out the counter-revolution by employing «peaceful» means. The latter is the method of the revisionist degeneration, which, as was shown by the bitter experience and the tragedy that happened in the Soviet Union and in some other socialist countries, constitutes a great, serious and constant danger to the socialist system.
«After wiping out the armed enemies», Comrade Mao Tse-tung has pointed out, «there will still remain unarmed enemies. Never will they sit still and not wage a life-or-death struggle against us; we should never underestimate them» (Selected Works, Alb. edit., vol. 5, p. 473). Comrade Mao Tse-tung has also stressed: «Even when the socialist revolution has practically won in our country, there will still be a number of people who dream of restoring the capitalist system; they fight against the working class on all the fronts, including the ideological one. In this fight the revisionists are their best help.» («On correct handling the contradictions among the people»).
The general and fundamental aim of the Chinese great proletarian cultural revolution is to block the way, now and forever, to the emergence of revisionism and to the restoration of capitalism in China; not to let the tragedy which happened in the Soviet Union be repeated in China; to ensure the uninterrupted development of the socialist revolution in all the fields until the full construction of socialism and the classless communist society have been achieved. Its aim is to provide an unquestionable guarantee for the complete and final victory of socialism. From this point of view it is a part and the development and the further deepening of the socialist revolution in its entirety, its promotion to a new and higher stage.
The class struggle in the field of ideology and culture in the socialist countries is, in the final analysis, the struggle for political power. The bitter experience of that which happened in the Soviet Union shows that the socialist revolution in the political field does not end with the overthrow of the state power of the exploiting classes and the establishment of the proletarian dictatorship; it shows that this first decisive victory of the working class over its class enemies cannot be regarded as the final one, that this revolution must be constantly carried forward, ceaselessly strengthening and perfecting the proletarian dictatorship, by protecting it from bureaucratic distortions and from bourgeois and revisionist degeneration, by cleaning up the state organs of the covert counterrevolutionary elements, old and new, who may penetrate into these organs and who try to undermine people’s power; the strengthening of the proletarian dictatorship will be achieved by ideologically and politically preparing all the working people and educating them with a high revolutionary consciousness and spirit so that the broad working masses themselves, led by the party, get hold of the problem of defending and strengthening the proletarian dictatorship, of exercising people’s control over the state organs and the cadres who work in these organs. This is precisely one of the main targets of the great proletarian cultural revolution in the PR of China — to defend and strengthen the proletarian dictatorship in China, not to let it degenerate into a counterrevolutionary dictatorship of the revisionists and of the bourgeoisie. Herein lies the vital importance of this revolution.
While trying to undermine the proletarian dictatorship and the socialist order as a whole, and to restore capitalism, the bourgeois and revisionist enemies direct their blows primarily against the Marxist-Leninist Party; they try to seize power in the Party, to subvert, degenerate and liquidate it as a revolutionary Party of the working class, and turn it into a weapon to attain their anti-socialist and counter-revolutionary aims. There exists the danger that, under certain circumstances, as it happened in the Soviet Union and other countries, the Party may lose its revolutionary features, become bureaucratic and degenerate. Bourgeois and revisionist elements may push their way into its ranks or people with a more or less revolutionary background may degenerate into revisionists and enemies of socialism; they may climb to even important leading posts and use their post to sabotage the revolution and socialist construction, to make the Party depart from its Marxist-Leninist road, to disseminate in the Party revisionist conceptions and the revisionist line. The struggle against this danger is of vital importance to the destiny of the revolution and of socialism.
The Chinese great proletarian cultural revolution is a fierce struggle against such attempts of the bourgeois and revisionist right wing elements to lead the CPC away from the revolutionary Marxist-Leninist line represented by Comrade Mao Tse-tung. It was a destructive blow dealt at their dangerous plans. It rallied the party more closely around the resolute Marxist-Leninist and anti-revisionist course of Comrade Mao Tse-tung; it became a great school of revolutionary tempering for all the communists, it has unprecedentedly enlivened and made more militant the life of the whole Party and country.
The most striking characteristic of the Chinese great proletarian cultural revolution is that it is an unprecedented movement of the hundreds of millions of laboring masses, of workers, peasants, soldiers, youth and people’s intellectuals who are armed with Mao Tse-tung’s thought as their guide for action, revolutionize their consciousness and the life of the whole country, who promote their creative initiative and self-activity in all fields including that of culture and arts. They exercise their direct revolutionary control upon everything. This mighty and conscientious revolutionary movement embracing the broad working masses is of tremendous historic significance. It has not only accelerated in all the aspects the tempo of socialist construction in the PR of China, by relying on their own efforts (for socialism is the deed of the people’s masses themselves led by the Party) but it has also set up an insurmountable barrier to the hostile activities of the bourgeois and revisionist elements who tried to propagate in China the revisionist line and make China embark on the road of capitalist restoration. Alongside with the negative experience of that which happened in the Soviet Union, the Chinese great proletarian cultural revolution is a great positive lesson that shows that the boundless trust on the broad working masses, their active and direct involvement in revolution, arming them with Marxist-Leninist ideas, the development of their revolutionary initiative is the most effective means to uproot the poisonous revisionist weeds and the best guarantee to block the path, now and forever, to the capitalist restoration in every socialist country.
The Chinese great proletarian cultural revolution is a great school for the revolutionary tempering of the broad working masses, and of the young generation in particular. This is a vital problem for the future of socialism, for the youth are those who will take into their hands and carry forward the baton of revolution. And the historical experience has proved that only by actively and directly participating in revolution is it possible to have worthy successors to revolution and the cause of socialism imbued with unswerving loyalty towards the revolutionary ideals, determined to the end to defend and put into practice those ideals, surmounting all difficulties, obstacles and sacrifices no matter how great and heavy they be. Without cultivating such generations of new revolutionary fighters, the cause of revolution and socialism cannot be guaranteed and is bound to fail sooner or later. While on the contrary, the revolutionary Marxist-Leninist tempering of the younger generation is a sure guarantee that this cause will ceaselessly march forward, ever triumphantly.
During the great Chinese proletarian cultural revolution the lofty revolutionary qualities of youth — their unbounded loyalty to the cause of revolution, their resolute struggle for the new against everything that is rotten and reactionary, their unyielding revolutionary vigour, assumed an all round rapid development. In the process of the development of this revolution the «Red Guards» movement came into being. Enlightened by Comrade Mao Tse-tung’s teachings and led by the Party they are on the front-line of fire and have dealt heavy blows at the revisionist elements and bourgeois authorities of culture and art, thus, giving a valuable contribution to the cleaning up of the socialist culture from alien influences which are very dangerous to the cause of socialism and to the revolution.
The imperialist, Khrushchovite revisionist and Titoite press and their followers, all the reactionaries in a united chorus have hurled themselves especially against the «Red Guards» movement, using the most unbridled slanders, thus, trying to throw mud at the great Chinese proletarian cultural revolution, to discredit it before world public opinion. They say that the «Red Guards» are but «immature, fanatic children.» But using such fabrications they cannot cheat the peoples and the revolutionaries of the world. Were not in our country the young sons and daughters of our people who fervently responding to the call of the Albanian Communist Party abandoned the school benches and their homes and took up arms to liberate their country, to overthrow the old exploiting system and set up a new world — socialism? But, at that time, the reactionary fascists, the ballists and others looked upon and called our National Liberation War, «something childish», and other names like this! But the young revolutionary generation unswervingly continued along its road till victory was won and it is precisely this generation that directs the destiny of our socialist Fatherland.
World reaction and the modern revisionists accuse the Chinese Red Guards of «destroying the monuments of culture and of persecuting persons in authority.» But in what case have the exploiting class and their different lackeys not called «enemies and barbarous destroyers of culture» the revolutionaries who rose in the struggle to knock down the old and set up the new world? Have they not called also Lenin and the Bolsheviks who led the Great October Socialist Revolution to victory by such names? Haven’t the enemies and various reactionaries accused our Party and our people’s power of this? The imperialists and revisionists have no other culture but the decadent bourgeois culture, literature and art. That is why they regard the struggle against them as the negation and destruction of culture in general. But what has history proved? It has proved that it has always been the revolutionaries who, in fierce struggle with the old reactionary culture and upon its ruins, have created a new progressive and still higher culture by preserving and further developing every positive cultural heritage of the past.
What bears an extremely great importance in every vehement mass movement, such as the great Chinese proletarian cultural revolution, is to look into the core of things, into the general course but not the partial and particular faults that may be committed by these or those groups of people, which has always been the case with the great revolutions in the course of history. Any partial fault cannot darken in the least the fact that the contents of the great proletarian revolution that is developing now in the PR of China in the field of education, culture and arts is the eradication of the old reactionary culture of the exploiting classes, of its poisonous influence; the cleaning up, the development and the consolidation of the new proletarian culture in the service of the revolution and socialism. «At present,» it is said in the 16-items resolution of the Plenum of the CC of the CPC, «our aim is to destroy all those who are donned with state authority and who take the capitalist road; to criticize the bourgeois reactionary academic «authorities», to criticize the ideology of the bourgeoisie and of all the exploiting classes. Our aim is to transform education, literature and art, to transform all the fields of superstructure that do not correspond to the economic basis of socialism, in order to strengthen and develop our socialist system.»
In the field of culture the resistance of the exploiting and overthrown classes is particularly stubborn and refined. The struggle for the triumph of the new culture is especially long, difficult and complicated. The bourgeois right and revisionist elements in China disseminated bourgeois and revisionist ideas about art and culture in disguised and elaborated forms. They defended and exalted the old reactionary culture of the exploiting classes. They rose against the principle of the proletarian party spirit in literature and art and secretly carried out a campaign against the Marxist-Leninist ideas of Comrade Mao Tse-tung. They tried through artistic works to spread the revisionist poison, to confuse and spiritually degenerate the working people, to use culture and arts as a means for the preparation of the political counter-revolution and for the restoration of capitalism. This is why the merciless struggle against such elements, the struggle for the decisive eradication of the dangerous influences of the old reactionary culture and art of the exploiting classes, for a new revolutionary culture and art, the struggle to put culture and art entirely at the service of the cause of revolution and socialism, at the service of the working people, to make them a powerful weapon for the revolutionary class education of the working people, is a component part of vital importance of the whole struggle between the two roads — the socialist and capitalist roads, of the struggle for the complete victory of socialism over capitalism.
This new proletarian culture which has particular revolutionary contents, resolutely discarding the reactionary essence of the old culture of the exploiting classes, is also based on the progressive Chinese and world cultural heritage by critically assimilating it. The revisionists try in vain to slander the Chinese proletarian cultural revolution that it allegedly negates every foreign thing as well as the cultural heritage of the Chinese people. In connection with this problem Comrade Mao Tse-tung has written: «...we can by no means give up accepting as a heritage and use as a support in our work the works of the old and foreign writers and artists», but, he goes on to say: «the mechanical borrowing or the blind imitation of the old or foreign authors’ works is the most worthless and harmful dogmatism in literature and art.»- He has stressed that every heritage of the past must be treated with a critical eye «looking for the new into the old.» At the big mass rally of the revolutionary fighters of literature and art held in Peking on November 23, 1966, the ideas of Comrade Mao Tse-tung were stressed once again: «To pay less attention to the ancient, and mainly, concentrate our attention on the present, to use the ancient in the interest of the present, and the foreign in the interest of China», «to create and develop the new by critically assimilating the old». But, at the same time, Comrade Mao Tse-tung has particularly and forcibly stressed the necessity of the critique and of the resolute struggle against any bourgeois and reactionary influence of culture which constitutes a serious danger to the cause of socialism.
It is to these Marxist-Leninist ideas of Comrade Mao Tse-tung that the proletarian cultural revolution sticks in China. Are they not in full accordance with Lenin’s ideas who has also said: «...We take from any national culture only its democratic and socialist elements, we take them only and in full opposition to the bourgeois culture, to the bourgeois nationalism of any nation». (Works, vol. 20, p. 8, Rus. edit.) Lenin, during all his great revolutionary life, waged a persistent struggle against bourgeois culture, art and literature; he consistently defended the principle of the proletarian party spirit, fought for a new culture, art and literature which should be characterized by proletarian ideology and which should serve the broad masses of the workers and peasants. The revisionists cannot find in Lenin a single support for their treacherous line and their anti-China slanders. Illuminated by Marxist-Leninist teachings on the attitude towards the development of culture, literature and arts in socialism, the great Chinese proletarian cultural revolution is marching forward and is also scoring victories in this vital field of socialist construction for the creation of the new proletarian culture, the most brilliant literature and art in the history of mankind, worthy of the great epoch of socialism and communism.
By revolutionizing people’s minds and spirit, and by rallying up around an unprecedented creative movement the broadest masses of hundreds of millions of people — workers, peasants, soldiers, people’s intelligentsia, youth and women, by mobilizing them to master and apply into practice the great revolutionary Marxist-Leninist teachings of Comrade Mao Tse-tung in the three big movements — the class struggle, the struggle for production and scientific experimentation — the great proletarian cultural revolution has become a powerful factor for the development at a higher tempo of socialist production in all fields in the PR of China. A great number of new important initiatives have sprung up all over people’s China, which, following the example of Tachin and Tachai, bravely breaking the old conceptions, norms and stereotyped forms, are changing the face of the country at an unheard-of speed.
At the same time, and this is one of the greatest and most important victories, the great proletarian cultural revolution has given an unprecedented impetus to the all-round strengthening of the defense might of the PR of China, has turned the whole country into an invincible fortress of socialism, able to encounter and destroy any imperialist and revisionist aggression wherever it comes from, to effectively aid, if need be, the revolutionary peoples in their struggle against the imperialist oppressors and aggressors.
Guided by the important teachings of Comrade Mao Tse-tung on people’s war, on the role of man and weapon in present day warfare, by putting in everything the proletarian politics in command, the cadres and fighters of the People’s liberation army, loyal to the Party and to the Marxist-Leninist ideas of Mao Tse-tung, have achieved brilliant results in the tempering of their ideo-political consciousness and in enhancing their military preparedness for the defence of the country. Alongside with this, the proletarian cultural revolution has given a fresh impetus to the participation of all the people, especially of the younger generation, in the drive for the constant strengthening of the defense of the country, for the all-round physical tempering and the military training of all the citizens of the 700- million-strong China.
These are the real objectives and the results of the great proletarian cultural revolution which is vigorously developing in the PR of China. It constitutes a great historic victory in the People’s China and a destructive blow at the counter-revolutionary plans of the U.S. imperialists and the Khrushchovite revisionists.
A Great Contribution to the Struggle against Imperialism and Modern Revisionism, to the Triumph of Revolution and Socialism throughout the World
The successful development of the great Chinese proletarian cultural revolution is an event of great historic significance. It is a great victory not only for the triumph of socialism in the PR of China, but also for the cause of revolution, socialism and the liberation of the peoples throughout the world. And this is quite natural because the PR of China is at present the main fortress of socialism in the world, the most powerful supporter of the revolutionary movement and the world liberation movement.
On the other side, the great Chinese cultural revolution marks a further development of the theory and practice of socialist construction, it enriches the revolutionary experience of international communism, it is a shining example from which all the Marxist-Leninists of the world can and must profit, thus, drawing valuable lessons in accordance with the conditions of every country to carry forward socialist revolution.
By supporting and consolidating the correct revolutionary, internationalist line, represented by Comrade Mao Tse-tung, the great proletarian cultural revolution gave a colossal contribution to the intensification of the struggle against world imperialism headed by U.S. imperialism and against international modern revisionism, having as its centre the treacherous Soviet leadership, to the triumph of the cause of revolution, socialism and freedom of the peoples throughout the world.
One of the main objectives of the great Chinese proletarian cultural revolution in the international arena is precisely the intensification and the further development of 'the struggle against world imperialism and, before and above all, against U.S. imperialism. In the communique of the XI Plenum of the CC of the CPC it is said: «...U.S. imperialism is the fiercest common enemy of the peoples all over the world. In order to isolate U.S. imperialism to the maximum and to inflict on it heavy blows, it is necessary that a broad international united front of the struggle against US imperialism and its lackeys be created». Pursuing this unflinching anti-imperialist revolutionary line the PR of China wages a tit-for-tat struggle against U.S. imperialism, mercilessly exposes and resolutely opposes its aggressive warmongering and enslaving policy. The PR of China has become an insurmountable barrier to the realization of the crazy plans of U.S. imperialism for world domination.
The course of the great Chinese proletarian cultural revolution in the international arena is also that of the further intensification of the struggle against modern revisionism, first and foremost, against the revisionist Soviet leadership which, as it is stated in the materials of the Plenum of the CC of the CPC «has betrayed Marxism-Leninism, great Lenin, the path of the great October Revolution, it has betrayed proletarian internationalism, the revolutionary cause of the international proletariat, the interests of the oppressed peoples and nations, the interests of the great Soviet people, the interests of the peoples of the socialist countries. It pursues the policy of Soviet-U.S. collaboration for world domination. It carries out splitting, undermining and subversive activities in the international communist movement and in the national liberation movement. It actively serves U.S. imperialism.» Related to this, the Plenum of the CC of the CPC pointed out that «the struggle against imperialism presupposes the struggle against modern revisionism». It fully approved of the line of the resolute and uncompromising struggle against modern Khrushchovite revisionism, a line which is pursued under the direct leadership of Comrade Mao Tse-tung, and stressed that in the struggle between Marxism-Leninism and modern revisionism a middle-course doesn’t exist and cannot exist, that it is imperative to draw a clear-cut demarcation line with the revisionist groups which have as their centre the leadership of CPSU; that it is absolutely necessary to mercilessly expose their real features as strikebreakers, that it must be made clear that «unity of action» with them is out of question, that for the Khrushchovite revisionists and their friends there is no room and there can’t be found any in the common anti-imperialist front of the peoples of the world, that all the revolutionary Marxist-Leninist forces must be united in order to carry the struggle against modern revisionism through to the end. This revolutionary Marxist-Leninist line met with the firm support of the hundreds of millions of the working masses of the Chinese people who are resolved to carrying out the great proletarian cultural revolution.
The great Chinese proletarian cultural revolution is being carried out under the banner of proletarian internationalism, which constitutes the loftiest guiding principle of the foreign policy of the PR of China: it is being carried out under the banner of the firm, unreserved support of the struggle of the revolutionary peoples who are fighting for their national liberation from the imperialist oppressors, of the peoples who oppose the U.S. and other armed aggressions. The hundreds of millions of the people that take part in this revolution have explicitly expressed themselves in support of the just struggle of the Vietnamese people for the liberation and the defence of their fatherland from the U.S. aggressors, for the complete and final destruction of the latter. The education of the masses with the proletarian internationalist spirit, with the spirit of submitting everything to the cause of the triumph of revolution and socialism throughout the world, with the spirit of being ready to help the struggle of the revolutionary forces and the peoples of other countries with all the forces and means defying all sacrifices, is one of the main characteristic features of the development of the great Chinese proletarian cultural revolution.
Taken in its entirety, the main course of the great Chinese proletarian cultural revolution in the international field is the selfless and resolute struggle for the uninterrupted development and triumph of world revolution. It is a component part of vital importance of world revolution under present conditions. It is a shining example for all the revolutionaries and peoples of the world showing how to dare to rise against the old, how to dare to fight and win over various enemies. This firm revolutionary course is one of the main causes that has made the great Chinese proletarian cultural revolution, that has made the CPC and Comrade Mao Tse-tung, who is leading it, win the sympathy and the ardent support of the revolutionaries and peoples of the world, on one side, and the unbridled hatred of the imperialists, modern revisionists and of all the reactionaries the world over, on the other.
The red beacon that illuminates the road to the Chinese proletarian cultural revolution are the great ideas of the prominent Marxist-Leninist Comrade Mao Tse-tung who stands at the head of this great revolution and successfully leads it. Enraged by the revolutionary spirit, the lofty aims and the tremendous results of this revolution, the revisionists are now launching wild attacks and slanders against Comrade Mao Tse-tung. Their hatred is comprehensible. Has it ever happened that the revolutionaries enjoy the sympathy and love of the class enemies? The revisionists are enraged and terrified by the Marxist-Leninist revolutionary line which Comrade Mao Tse-tung defends and puts into practice. They are terrified by his line of the resolute struggle against imperialism and revisionism in order to advance the cause of socialism in China. They are terrified by the fact that this line, thanks to the proletarian cultural revolution, triumphed over all the hopes of the Khrushchovite revisionists and their agents in China to lead the CPC astray from its correct path.
No matter how much the revisionists may vilify against Comrade Mao Tse-tung they cannot obscure in the least his great figure. Comrade Mao Tse-tung is the great leader and teacher of the CPC and of the seven hundred million Chinese people. He is the beloved and outstanding leader of the international proletariat and of the world revolutionary movement; he is the praise-worthy successor to the cause of Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin. The ideas of Mao Tse-tung are a brilliant example of revolutionary Marxism-Leninism, they are the creative application of the fundamental teachings of Marxism-Leninism in the practice of the revolution of the great Chinese people and of socialist construction in the PR of China.
Comrade Mao Tse-tung has rendered a great contribution to the further development of Marxism-Leninism, to the theory of scientific socialism, concretizing and enriching it with such important theses as the problems of strategy and tactics of the revolutionary people’s war, of the problem of the contradictions existing in socialist society, of the development of the revolutionary democratism, of the mass line, of class struggle in socialist society and of the measures to block the avenue leading to revisionism and to the restoration of capitalism, as well as other theses. They are of vital importance to the cause of revolution and of socialism in China and all the world.
The thorough study of the works of Comrade Mao Tse-tung as a guide for action in the struggle and in practical work has become a powerful movement in the PR of China in which the broad masses of workers, peasants, soldiers, youth, women, and people’s intellectuals numbering hundreds of millions of people take part. Embraced by the masses and revolutionizing their minds, the Marxist-Leninist ideas of Comrade Mao Tse-tung have thus, become a colossal material force .for the transformation of nature and society: they have become a powerful motive force that pushes on forward unceasingly the wheel of revolution and of socialist construction in the Great People’s Republic of China.
Today, when the entire world reaction, with the U.S. imperialists at the head and the modern revisionists, with the treacherous Soviet leadership at the top, are bouncing like wild beasts against People’s China, the CPC, and against Comrade Mao Tse-tung, trying to discredit and isolate them by spreading the most monstruous slanders against the great Chinese proletarian cultural revolution and hatching up dangerous plots against the PR of China — the centre and the main stronghold of revolution and socialism in the world, — at present the duty of all the Marxist-Leninists and of the true revolutionaries throughout the world is to rise up as a single body in defence of the China of Mao Tse-tung, to strengthen their unity with it, and to expose before the eyes of the world the slanderous anti-Chinese propaganda of the imperialists and the modern revisionists, and to inflict on them complete defeat. «Solidarity with People’s China,» Comrade Enver Hoxha said at the fifth Congress of the PLA, «defending it from the attempts of the imperialists and of their lackeys — the revisionists — is today a historic duty and a vital question for all the revolutionary and freedom loving peoples. Our people, Party and Government who march along the same revolutionary road with the great Chinese people and their Communist Party will always be solidary and side by side with them, rain or shine, and, together with them, will march forward in the struggle against imperialism, modern revisionism, and for the triumph of revolution and socialism.»
Click here to return to the
index of archival material.