From Albania Today, 1976, 1
By Hysni Kapo – Member of the Political Bureau and secretary of the Central Committee of the PLA.
Report delivered at the 3rd session of the 8th Legislature of the People's Assembly of the PRA. As already reported, this session, which held its proceedings on November 17, 1975, was dedicated to the question of the drawing of the new constitution of the PSA.
The new constitution, as the fundamental law of our State of the dictatorship of the proletariat, will reflect the rich experience gained by the PLA and the Albanian State in socialist construction, as well as the Marxist-Leninist principles of the PLA and its struggle for carrying out the revolution towards the attainment of the ultimate objective – the building of communism
This session of the People's Assembly is convened over the very important issue, of the drawing up of the new constitution of our state. In this way, the supreme representative organ of our state is concretely setting about the work for the fulfilment of the great task laid down by the 6th Congress of the Party and, in its implementation, of the decisions adopted by the 8th Plenum of the Central Committee which met recently. On this occasion allow me, on behalf of the Central Committee of the Party, to express the full confidence that the People's Assembly will fulfil this task very well. Along with the great responsibility falling on them, the representatives of the people in this Assembly will have also the great honour of approving the new fundamental law of our socialist state, which will go down in the history of new Albania as its second socialist constitution, as a constitution of the stage of the complete construction of socialism in our country.
The work for the fulfilment of the task laid down by the Party for the drawing up of the new Constitution is beginning in the revolutionary general situation which characterises our country, when the broadest strata of the people, old and young, have united to a man round the PLA, its Central Committee and the beloved leader of our Party and people, comrade Enver Hoxha. The working masses of our country, with the working class at the head, under the leadership of the Party, mobilised to an extraordinary degree and with a high level of class consciousness, are carrying out all-round activity to consolidate and advance the socialist construction in all fields, to deepen the ideological and cultural revolution, to attain new victories for socialist Albania and to defend the homeland and socialist order. The entire Albanian people have engaged themselves in resolute struggle against the internal and external enemies of our country with the result that, in the face of the invincible force of the ideas of Marxism-Leninism which guide them on their way, in the face of the fiery patriotism and revolutionary vigilance which characterise them, in the face of their steel-like unity around the Party of Labour which leads them, all the attempts of the enemies of every hue have ended in ignominious failure. There is no doubt that the drawing up of the new Constitution will serve to build up this revolutionary situation and will mark a great political and ideological event in the life of the entire country. The drawing up of the new Constitution will be another very important link, in the series of measures our Party has taken for the continued revolutionisation of the life of the country, this will be – as comrade Enver Hoxha says – “a step of great theoretical, and practical importance for the further strengthening and perfecting of the state of the dictatorship of the proletariat in our country”.
The need to draw up the new Constitution at the present stage of the socialist development of the country, is dictated by the great socio-economic transformations which have taken place during this 31-year period of the existence of the socialist state power in our country.
With the liberation of the country and the triumph of the people's revolution, on the 29th of November 1944, a new brilliant page was opened in the history of our people. For the first time Albania won real independence, putting an end to the fascist occupation, as well as to the long period of subjugation to foreign powers. The exploiting classes were overthrown and the old state apparatus in their service was destroyed to its foundations; the new state was created which, immediately after the liberation of the country, carried out the functions of the dictatorship of the proletariat; a state apparatus entirely new as to its structure and class content, method and style of work, was set up everywhere. The Albanian people, inspired in everything by the great and immortal ideas of Marxism-Leninism, under the correct and farsighted leadership of the Party with comrade Enver Hoxha at the head, deepening and carrying further the gains of the people's revolution, set out on the road of socialist construction.
In continuation of these profound transformations, as their crowning and legal sanctioning with the true will of the people, on the 14th of March 1946, the Constituent Assembly approved the Constitution of our new State. It was the first truly democratic and revolutionary Constitution of Albania, the first Constitution made by the people themselves, immediately after they took the State power into their own hands.
The Constitution of new Albania reflected the first socio-economic transformations of a democratic and socialist character such as: the elimination of the domination of foreign capital and its plunder of the riches of the country; the expropriation of the capitalists and landlords, the passing of the principal means of production into the hands of the people and the transformation into common property of the mines and other underground riches, waters and natural resources, forests and pastures, means of communication and transport, banks, etc., the proclamation of the State monopoly over foreign trade and its control over internal trade; the carrying out of the land reform which gave the land to those who tilled it; the process of the socialist industrialisation of the country and the setting up of socialist economies in the countryside, through the collectivisation of agriculture. Deepening the Declaration on the rights of the citizens, approved by the 2nd Meeting of the Antifascist National Liberation Council, which was held in Berat in October 1944, the Constitution sanctioned the rights and democratic freedoms of the citizens. The most important feature of the Constitution in this direction was that it did not confine itself to proclaiming these rights and freedoms, but, as a Constitution of a socialist State, was concentrated on the real possibilities to exercise and guarantee them. Finally, the Constitution not only sanctioned what had been achieved in that short period, but also contained programmatic elements. From this viewpoint, it served as a constitutional basis for the further development of the country on the road of socialism, sanctioning the objectives of the future activity of the State and society. The adoption of the 1946 Constitution was a great political victory for our people and Party. "Its importance”, says comrade Enver Hoxha, “consisted in the fact that it legalised that profound and radical overturn which was made in the life of our society as a result of the triumph of the people's revolution, it sanctioned from the juridical viewpoint all those great political, economic and social gains the people had achieved with their heroic struggle and opened clear prospects for other revolutionary transformations in all fields of life, on socialist foundations”.
But, as it was pointed out at the 6th Congress of the Party, the period which this Constitution served has now gone by. The profound revolutionary transformations which have been carried out during this period in our country, under the leadership of the Party, in all fields of social life, mark a whole historical stage which has been left behind. The setting up of the economic base of socialism has long been completed in our homeland. The single socialist system of the economy, has taken the place of the multiform economy, socialist ownership over the means of production has taken the place of private ownership and, on this basis, socialist relations of production have been fully established, both in town and countryside.
The successful carrying out of the policy of the Party for the construction of the economic base of socialism also brought about the radical transformation of the old class structure of our society. With the complete establishment of socialist relations of production the process of the elimination of the exploiting classes as classes came to an end. Our society is now comprised of two friendly classes – the working class and the cooperativist peasantry, as well as the stratum of the people's intelligentsia. The alliance of the working class and the cooperativist peasantry, under the leadership of the working class, and the raising to a qualitatively new level of the unity of our people, which now has the friendship and cooperation of the two socialist classes at its foundation, constitutes the fundamental distinguishing feature of the class structure in our country today.
During this period, the working class itself, the working peasantry and the intelligentsia, have undergone radical changes, too.
The establishment of socialist ownership and the creation of the new class structure eliminated, once and for all, the exploitation of man by man as well as the social antagonisms, which are the offspring of this exploitation and the system, based on it, such as the antagonisms between town and countryside, industry and agriculture, mental work and manual work, while the essential differences between them are being gradually narrowed. They put an end to the age-long oppression of the woman and ensured the fundamental conditions for her complete emancipation, for her active participation equal with the men in running the country and in all spheres of socialist construction and social activity.
The new socio-economic relations became that decisive factor which ensured the impetuous development of the productive forces, which opened the road for the all-round progress of our country. Within a very short period, as a result of the policy of the Party of socialist industrialisation, Albania has been transformed today from a profoundly backward agricultural country, into an advanced agricultural-industrial country. Many new industrial branches have been created which permit the local processing of mineral riches and: other raw materials, up to the production of finished products. Now the task of making a new qualitative leap to turn Albania into an industrial-agricultural country is on the agenda. The creation of the cooperativist order and the many-sided measures that have been taken for the strengthening of the material-technical base of agricultural production, have put our agriculture on the road of intensive up-to-date development.
The radical changes in the economic and material-technical base as well as in the class composition of society, brought about great changes also in its superstructure. Under the continuous care of the Party, our State of the dictatorship of the proletariat has been further consolidated. The fight against bureaucracy and liberalism, for a new style and method of work, the enlivening and deepening of the mass line and the increase of the direct control by the workers, the perfecting of the relations, between the cadres and the masses, the arming and military training of the entire people, etc, have strengthened the political superstructure of the socialist society and have enriched the practice of the functioning of our State and social life at all levels. The successful development of the ideological and cultural revolution, in fierce class struggle against the old ideologies of the exploiting society and against the pressure and present-day ideological influences of the capitalist and revisionist world, the further revolutionisation of the school and the carrying out of the technical and scientific revolution, the elimination of religious institutions, the all-round work of the Party for the communist education of the working people, particularly for the tempering of the younger generation, as a worthy and reliable successor to carry forward the cause of the revolution and socialism - all these have brought about obvious changes in the ideological superstructure of society, and Marxism-Leninism, the world outlook of the working class and its revolutionary Party has become the dominant ideology in our country.
Such is the historic course traversed in these 31 years by our people and our homeland. It testifies to the correctness of the proletarian Marxist-Leninist line pursued with farsightedness and firm determination by the Party of Labour of Albania with comrade Enver Hoxha at the head, it testifies to the incontestable superiority of the socialist order we have set up. This whole period is replete with struggle and countless efforts for the construction and defence of socialism. The dictatorship of the proletariat has been unceasingly strengthened and revolutionary vigilance has always been kept sharp, in order to suppress and destroy any activity of the overthrown exploiting classes and of all the enemies of socialism, internal and external, who have always tried to hinder our people on the brilliant road on which the Party leads them and to turn them back to the dark past. We have had to face up to and defeat the attacks, pressures, sabotage and blockades of the bourgeoisie, of imperialism and external reaction, of modern revisionism, Soviet social imperialism, and of all the enemies of socialism. With unexampled sacrifice and self-denial the age-old backwardness inherited from the past was overcome and that great forward leap was made to bring about the happy socialist life which has opened before our people brilliant new prospects for the complete construction of socialism in Albania. All these victories have been achieved through an uninterrupted class struggle, which, as comrade Enver Hoxha points out, has been carried out in all fields and with the most diverse means, not only against enemies, but also in the ranks of the people, in order to eliminate the alien influences which poison the consciousness of the working people. On this vital question our Party has always kept in mind the teaching of the great Lenin that “the dictatorship of the proletariat is not the end of the class struggle, but its continuation in new forms”.
In all these titanic efforts, in carrying out the transformations made so far and in achieving the great gains we are enjoying today, in achieving and strengthening the unity of the people in the struggle against external and internal enemies, the first socialist Constitution of our State, as the fundamental law and the basis of our entire revolutionary legislation, has played an important historical role. But, in the light of the profound changes which have been made in all fields of the life of the country, it is clear that despite the modifications made to it in subsequent years, the constitution in force has become outdated in many aspects. Therefore, the 6th Congress of the Party, on the basis of the report delivered by comrade Enver Hoxha, laid down the task of drawing up a new Constitution.
The Central Committee of 4he Party, proceeding from this great task laid down by the Congress, set about the work several years ago, carrying out a series of important studies, and has prepared the relevant materials, which will be made available to the organ that will be created by the People's Assembly for the drafting of the new Constitution.
The Party of Labour of Albania and our State of the dictatorship of the proletariat, faithfully following the Marxist-Leninist theory and implementing it in a creative way have gained rich experience in the building of socialism. The summing up which the Party of Labour of Albania and its leader, comrade Enver Hoxha, have made of the experience of our country and of world socialism, constitutes an important contribution to the treasury of Marxism-Leninism, as to how to ensure the constant advance of the socialist revolution to the complete and final victory, and bar the way to the danger of turning back to capitalism. It is the task of the new Constitution, as the fundamental law of our State of the dictatorship of the proletariat, to reflect this rich experience, which affects all fields of life – political, economic, cultural, military, administrative, etc., to reflect the Marxist-Leninist principles of the Party of Labour and its struggle for the uninterrupted development of the socialist revolution towards the attainment of the final objective of the building of communism, to reflect the consistent defence and the creative development by our Party and comrade Enver Hoxha of the theory of Marxism-Leninism on the dictatorship of the proletariat and socialism. The Marxist-Leninist principles of our Party and the teachings of comrade Enver Hoxha will thoroughly permeate the new Constitution and will constitute its central axis.
In implementing the decisions of the 6th Congress of the Party, the guidelines of the 8th Plenum of the Central Committee and the instructions of comrade Enver Hoxha concerning the drawing up of the new Constitution, the Central Committee of the PLA recommends that the following main issues should be kept in mind:
First, the new Constitution should fully reflect the line of the PLA, embodied in our revolutionary practice. The correct Marxist-Leninist line pursued by our Party during the carrying out of the uninterrupted socialist revolution, the construction and defence of socialism, which has brought our people brilliant victories, should find its complete reflection in the constitutional norms, as it is in reality, a clear, principled; consistent, Marxist-Leninist line.
The Constitution should define, first of all, the fundamental aims and duties of our State of the dictatorship of the proletariat at the present stage of the development of the country, the main directions of its activity in the field of the home and foreign policies, which are an embodiment of the known principles of the classics of Marxism-Leninism closely interwoven with the historical experience of our country. The dictatorship of the proletariat, as the weapon of the socialist revolution, which only begins with the seizure of the state power by the working class, serves to carry this revolution through to the end, up till the complete and final victory, the construction of the classless communist society, by taking all measures to bar the way to the danger of turning back to capitalism, such as that of the revisionist and bourgeois degeneration of the socialist order.
In this context, the new Constitution should clearly reflect the role of our State of the dictatorship of the proletariat in the impetuous development of the productive forces and the increase of the economic might and independence of the country, in the unceasing perfecting of the socialist relations of production, defence of socialist property, the exercise of control over the amount of work and consumption and respect for the socialist principle of distribution; for the development of socialist culture and the technical and scientific revolution; for the continuous increase of the material well-being and the cultural level of the masses; for ensuring the rights, the democratic freedoms of the working people and the development of the personality of man, which constitute the aim of socialism. In the struggle for the achievement of these objectives, the State has the task of actively drawing the working masses into running the country through the wide variety of forms of socialist democracy, of carrying out an all-round struggle for the liberation of the consciousness of people from any kind of alien hangovers and influences, for the forming and tempering of the new man of socialist society, endowed with a proletarian world outlook, ideals and virtues. In this direction the social organisations have played and are playing a major role. As important levers in the hands of the Party, as an integral and important part of the system of the dictatorship of the proletariat, they unite broad masses and strata of the people, draw them in an organised way into the socialist construction and the running of the country, work for their communist education and see to the solution of their special problems.
As Marxism-Leninism, our Party, and comrade Enver Hoxha teach us, the construction of socialist society is carried out through a fierce class struggle, which takes place uninterruptedly in all fields and constitutes a great motive force even after the liquidation of the exploiting classes, up to communism. The essence of this class struggle, in whatever field of social life it may be carried out, is the problem of the dictatorship of the proletariat. “The key problem of the revolution”, stresses comrade Enver Hoxha, “has been and will remain till the attainment of the triumph of communism, the problem of the state power, of the dictatorship of the proletariat”. These vital teachings will be reflected in our new Constitution.
Likewise, of major importance are the problems of the defence of the socialist homeland, as one of the fundamental duties of our dictatorship of the proletariat, as a duty above all duties. On the basis of the light-giving teachings of the Party of Labour of Albania on this question, and particularly of the decisions of the 5th and 6th Plenums of the CC of the PLA, the Constitution must reflect the fundamental principles of our proletarian policy in the field of defence, such as the replacing of the “barracks army” system with the people armed and militarily organised, the principle of the leading role of the Party, over the Armed Forces, the organisation and directing of these forces on the basis of the revolutionary military science of the people's war, etc.
Likewise, the main duties of our socialist State, as well as the fundamental principles by which it is guided in the field of international relations and foreign policy, must be brought out clearly in the new Constitution. It should be clearly stated there that, in the future, as up till now, the internationalist attitude of socialist Albania and its principled struggle in the international arena, against imperialism and modern revisionism, in support of the revolutionary and liberation movement in other countries, for the triumph of the cause of socialism and communism in the world, will remain unchanged. As comrade Enver Hoxha has characterised it in his speech of October 3, 1974, to his electorate, the foreign policy of our Party and our socialist State is a profoundly revolutionary Marxist-Leninist policy. It is a policy of firm principles and not a pragmatist policy of unprincipled compromises, of temporary agreements for short-term gains; it is an open policy which is developed in the light of day and speaks the truth frankly and not a policy of backstage deals at the peoples expense, of flattery and tricks and underhand deception; it is a policy of the courage to raise the voice of the truth and to defend the sovereign rights of the peoples and nations, and not a policy of bowing and scraping, of submission and capitulation to the arrogance and blackmail of “the mighty”. Precisely because socialist Albania has always consistently pursued such a foreign policy its international position has been strengthened from day to day, it has won the love and admiration of the peoples of the whole world, and its international authority and prestige have constantly increased.
Second, the new Constitution should present the true features of socialism, which distinguish it from the distortions and falsifications of the modern revisionists. Built on the basis of the Marxist-Leninist theory of scientific socialism, the new Constitution of our State will be another affirmation of the fundamental principles formulated by the classics of Marxism-Leninism, especially in the field of the theory of the dictatorship of the proletariat, as well as of the defence and creative application of these principles in our country. This is of major importance in the conditions of the present-day struggle, for the exposure of all the distortions and falsifications perpetrated by the modern revisionists of the theory and practice of scientific socialism. As comrade Enver Hoxha points out, “the establishment of a boundary anda clear demarcation line between the truly socialist countries and those which only bear the name socialist” is indispensable. The treatment of problems from clear, proletarian class positions which will characterise the new Constitution, will be another blow dealt by socialist Albania to the betrayal by the Soviet-led modern revisionists, who are trying to deny the class content of socialist State and society as a whole, in order to cover up their bourgeois dictatorship and their counter-revolutionary policy. By reflecting the reality of a truly socialist country, as our country is, the new Constitution will help to develop the correct understanding of socialism. In this direction the sanctioning in the Constitution of our State of such fundamental principles of scientific socialism as the principle of the leadership by the Marxist-Leninist party of the working class, that of the dictatorship of the proletariat as well as the principle of the revolutionary ideology of the working class and its party, assumes special importance.
Whereas the modern revisionists attack the teachings of Marxism-Leninism about the proletarian party, through their preaching of the "multiparty system in socialism”, of the "merely ideological role of the Communist Party in socialism” and not its leading and directing role, of “the party of the entire people”, etc., in the new Constitution of our State, on the contrary, the Marxist-Leninist principle of the leading role of the Marxist-Leninist party in socialism will be affirmed and proclaimed as a constitutional norm. With this, the historical reality and the basic practice of our socialist society and State are sanctioned, while declaring, at the same time, that there can be no socialism without the undivided leadership of the proletarian party, which is a concentrated expression of the leading role of the working class in the socialist society and an indispensable condition of the very existence of the dictatorship of the proletariat.
Whereas the modern revisionists deny that the dictatorship of the proletariat is an entirely indispensable phenomenon during the whole period of transition from capitalism to communism and pretend that with the elimination of the exploiting classes it is transformed into a "State of the entire people", in the new Constitution of our State, on the contrary, the Marxist-Leninist principle that during the period of transition from capitalism to communism “the State can be nothing but a dictatorship of the proletariat” (k. Marx) will be affirmed and proclaimed as a constitutional norm. With this, our historical reality of the existence and unceasing strengthening of the dictatorship of the proletariat is sanctioned, while declaring at the same time, that without the dictatorship of the proletariat there is no building of socialism and communism, that in the proletarian character of the State, the leading role of the working class, which is meaningless without the proletarian party and the proletarian state, finds its concrete expression.
Whereas the modern revisionists advocate “the free circulation of ideas and cultures” and the spreading of non-proletarian ideas in socialism, our new Constitution, on the contrary, will affirm the Marxist-Leninist principle of the role of the revolutionary ideology of the working class and its party, and will proclaim as a constitutional norm that in our State and society, Marxism-Leninism, the revolutionary ideology of the working class and its party, is the dominant ideology, that our entire socialist social order is organised and develops on the basis of its principles. With this the reality achieved during the carrying out of our socialist revolution in the field of ideology and culture is sanctioned, while declaring at the same time, that socialism cannot be built without being based on the Marxist-Leninist theory, that in this, too, the leading role of the working class and its revolutionary party in the socialist society finds one of its main forms of expression.
Viewed from this angle, the new Constitution of our socialist State will comprise a new, valuable contribution by the Party of Labour of Albania to the revolutionary theory and practice of scientific socialism, to the historic struggle of Marxism-Leninism against modern revisionism, a struggle which our Party has always considered as its lofty internationalist duty.
Third, the new Constitution must conform to the present stage of the socialist development of the country. The stage of the complete construction of socialist society, which our country is now in, marks a new reality, with those great social, economic, cultural and defence changes which have been carried out in the course of these 31 years. The duty of the new Constitution – as comrade Enver Hoxha instructs – is that it must conform to the existing social situation in the country and stress the great reality of the construction of socialism. This is connected also with the name of our Republic, which must faithfully reflect this reality. But in any case it is important to keep in mind the idea of the continuity of the present Constitution in the new one, seeing the new Constitution as a development of the former one. Likewise, it is of first importance that the new Constitution while reflecting and sanctioning the achieved gains, should also express the tendency of the further development of the country on the road of the complete construction of socialism. This is an expression of the qualitative leap from the lower to the higher which the present stage will prepare for the future, just as yesterday's stage served the stage which our socialistsociety is in today.
The continuity between the new Constitution to be drawn up and the former one finds its expression, among other things, also in the fact that many problems and principled attitudes contained in the existing Constitution will preserve their full value in the new Constitution, too. Such are a series of principles of the organisation and functioning of the economic and State life of the country, such as the principles of self-reliance, the planning of the people's economy, distribution “according to work”, democratic centralism, socialist legality, the unity of the State power, etc.
In sanctioning the socialist socio-economic order which constitutes the economic basis of the State of the dictatorship of the proletariat, the new Constitution will reflect the deep transformations that have been carried out and the great victories that have been achieved in the development of this order in our country at the present stage. The establishment of socialist ownership in all the branches of the people's economy, as the only type of ownership over the principal means of production, represents an objective reality and a major historic victory of our country. The socialist ownership in its two forms – State and cooperativist, is the unshakeable foundation of our socio-economic order, the decisive factor for the unceasing development of the country on the road of socialism, for the strengthening of the defence capacity of the homeland and the systematic general raising of the wellbeing of the people. Private property now belongs to the past. Not only do this property and its bearers no longer exist, but any activity which may lead, in one form or another, to turning back, to the revival of private property and the social relations set up on this basis, is prohibited. The new Constitution will also reflect the reality, attained long ago in our country, in regard to the ownership over the land, as a result of the original course which was followed by our Party for the solution of this problem, in conformity with the special national, social, and economic features of the country.
In reflecting the changes in the socio-political order, the new Constitution must also deal with the problems of the political basis of the State power and sanction the fundamental principles of the functioning of the State and social mechanism. The essentially democratic character of our State should stand out here in all its clarity, and a series of important revolutionising measures taken by our Party for the continuous implementation and deepening of the line of the masses to fight and eradicate the evils of bureaucracy and liberalism, as well as any other alien phenomenon which carries the seed of bourgeois and revisionist degeneration of the State of the dictatorship of the proletariat, should find constitutional sanction.
It is essential that the new Constitution should reflect the new historical world experience of the dictatorship of the proletariat, gained both from the positive example of the socialist countries, as that of Albania, as well as from the negative example of the Soviet Union and the other revisionist countries. This experience shows that the guaranteeing of the socialist gains and further advance on this road cannot be conceived without the merciless fight against bureaucracy and liberalism, as the two main dangers of the peaceful degeneration of the dictatorship of the proletariat. In opposition to the bureaucratic practices or liberal laxity used by the modern revisionists as mines to blow up the foundations of the dictatorship of the proletariat, our Party has waged and will continue to wage a fierce and frontal struggle in both directions, both against bureaucracy and against liberalism, and this struggle will find the necessary reflection in the new Constitution. Our Party has always said, and this was pointed out again recently in the decisions of the 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th Plenums of the Central Committee of the Party, that the struggle against bureaucracy and liberalism constitutes one of the most important aspects of the class struggle.
It is known that the direct worker control is a necessity and a basic principle of social life during the entire historical period of socialism, one of the concrete and vivid expressions of the leading role of the working class, of proletarian democracy in operation, a sharp weapon in the struggle against bureaucracy and alien influences, a very effective norm of proletarian education of the working masses themselves, an indisputable right of the working class to preserve and strengthen the dictatorship of the proletariat and the socialist order, and one of the fundamental guarantees to avert the danger of revisionism and return to capitalism. This thesis of major theoretical and practical value of our Party about the direct worker control must be reflected in the new Constitution.
Of major importance is the constitutional sanctioning of the correct, truly socialist relations between the cadres and the working masses, without which we cannot speak either of socialist relations of production or socialist democracy. Historical experience proves that, if correct relations between the cadres and the masses are not established, there exists the real danger of a “worker” aristocracy or a new bourgeois class, being created in the bosom of socialist society, which can lead to the peaceful degeneration and the overthrow of the dictatorship of the proletariat, such as occurred in the revisionist Soviet Union and in some other countries. Proceeding from the lessons which stem from this and from the positive experience of our Party, while keeping in mind the great lesson of the Paris Commune that in order to preserve its domination as a class, the working class must protect itself also from its own officials and functionaries, must not permit their transformation into the overlords of society, and aiming at the same time to put the cadres in such material and social conditions that they remain revolutionaries till the end of their lives, – the new Constitution should be a synthesis of a series of effective measures that have been taken in our country so that the cadres and employees will always be servants of the people, merge themselves and live with the masses, think and feel in the same way as the working class and the cooperativist peasantry.
In all these directions the Party of Labour of Albania with comrade Enver Hoxha at the head, enlightened by the teachings of Marxism-Leninism, has worked out a series of key problems vital to the fate of socialism, which creatively enrich the historical experience of the dictatorship of the proletariat. For all these things, the working class and the broad working masses of our country feel a legitimate pride in their glorious Party, steel their unbreakable unity around it still further and strengthen their unwavering confidence that only under the leadership of the Party and according to its teachings will the dictatorship of the proletariat in Albania always be kept invincible and pure, and the cause of socialism in our homeland advance unceasingly, until the complete and final victory is achieved.
Fourth, the new Constitution should express the truly democratic character of our socialist social order. In our country, the working people themselves are in power and everything is done on their behalf and in their interest. Hence the essentially democratic and humanitarian character of our socialist social and State order, the State of the dictatorship of the proletariat, which expresses and defends the interests of all the working people. Only the dictatorship of the proletariat ensures true democracy to the working masses. "Without socialist democracy", says comrade Enver Hoxha, "there is no dictatorship of the proletariat, just as there can be no true democracy for the working people without a dictatorship of the proletariat". The rich variety of forms of the participation of the masses in the discussion and solution of social problems, in running the country, the control of the masses from below, particularly the direct worker control over everybody and everything, the putting of the cadres in effective dependence on those below, on the working masses, etc., as pointed out above – all these are vivid expressions of our socialist democracy in operation. The reality of our country, where the true democracy of the masses, socialist democracy. operates, grows and becomes stronger uninterruptedly, must find complete reflection in the new Constitution.
In sanctioning the victories achieved on the road of socialist construction, the new Constitution will clearly express the position of man in socialist Albania, which is characterised by the elimination of any oppression and exploitation, and by the transformation of the working masses, with the working class at the head, into the all-powerful masters of their own fate. It must sanction the rights and duties of our citizens, which are a clear expression of the true liberation of the working people in the conditions of socialist society, and one of the fundamental fields of socialist democracy for the broad working masses. Taking into account the worthy place the woman occupies in our socialist society, as an equal participant, as an active fighter for socialist construction and the defence of the country, who enjoys full civil rights and freedoms, which constitute major progress in the fight for the complete emancipation of the Albanian woman, the new Constitution will reflect these historic victories.
True democracy, socialist democracy in action, radically distinguishes our state and social order from the so-called bourgeois and revisionist "democracy". The construction of socialism and the communist perspective have as their fundamental premise and supreme aim the complete liberation of man from all the chains of the old exploiting society, the all-round development of his personality, of his capacity and creative energies, the continuous education and tempering of the new man, the increase of his active and conscious participation in running the affairs of the State and the entire society.
An essential requirement in drawing up the new Constitution, as in the existing Constitution, is not only to proclaim and insert the democratic principles, but also to provide real guarantees for their application in practice. In this too lies one of its radical distinctions from the deceptive constitutions of the bourgeois (and revisionist) countries, where – as Lenin pointed out – equality, democratic rights and freedoms are only formally proclaimed, while by means of one thousand real restrictions and complications, the working people are deprived o£ them and become wage slaves.
There is no doubt that the sanctioning of the principles of our socialist democracy in action, of the real democratic rights and freedoms the citizens enjoy in our socialist society, in the new Constitution, will raise still higher the revolutionary spirit which characterises our people, will increase the conscious participation of the broad working masses in running the country, and will strengthen still more the unity around the Party of Labour in the struggle to achieve the major aim, the complete construction of socialism in our homeland.
Fifth, the new Constitution should be clear, simple: and understandable to the broad working masses. The full reflection-which the fundamental Marxist-Leninist principles of the organisation of our society and State will find in the new Constitution, will raise this important document to the place of honour of the fundamental law of atruly socialist State, as the true expression of the aims and interests of the working masses themselves, with the working class at the head. But, while keeping in mind this main aspect, i.e. the content of the Constitution, attention must also be paid during the drafting of it to the other aspect, that the Constitution should speak to the working masses in such a way as to be easily grasped by them. This raises the requirement of writing the new Constitution in clear and simple language, understandable to the working people.
All these important guidelines given by the 6th Congress of the Party, the 8th Plenum of the Central Committee, and comrade Enver Hoxha, will serve as a basis for the drawing up of the new Constitution of our State. By realising these requirements in the best possible way in the Constitution to be drawn up, it will become a document of major revolutionary importance to our socialist present and future.
In order to completely achieve these important directives worked out by the Central Committee of the Party and comrade Enver Hoxha in regard to the new Constitution, it is understandable that the drawing up of this important document is a very responsible task which requires work and special care, requires serious preparation and thorough discussion. In the context of this work the Central Committee of the Party proposes to the People's Assembly the following:
1. For the drawing up of the draft of the new Constitution a special commission be created by the People's Assembly, which together with the Presidium of the People's Assembly, should also organise the discussion of this draft among the people.
2. The new Constitution which will be drawn up should be approved by the People’s Assembly following the broad discussion of the draft among the people.
Thus, comrade deputies, a great deal of work lies ahead of us for the drawing up of the new Constitution, up to its approval. The popular discussion of the draft Constitution will be the most vivid expression of drawing in the opinion of the masses on the affairs of running the State and society; this discussion will certainly serve both to supplement the draft with the proposals of the masses and to acquaint the masses with the ideas of our new Constitution. Thus, we shall have – as comrade Enver Hoxha says – a juridical, political and ideological document which will be the complete reflection of a whole glorious road and experience, which will inspire us, will fill us with optimism and will urge us to new battles and victories. The new Constitution, as an important component part of the political superstructure, will render splendid service to the constant advance of the revolution and socialist construction in which we are led with wisdom and farsightedness by our glorious Party with comrade Enver Hoxha at the head.
– Long live the Party of Labour of Albania!
– Long live our beloved leader and teacher comrade Enver Hoxha!
– Glory to Marxism-Leninism!
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