On the 27th Anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution
November 6, 1944
Comrades, to-day the Soviet people celebrate the 27th Anniversary of
the triumph of the Soviet Revolution in our country. This is the fourth
time that our country is observing the anniversary
of the Soviet Revolution in the midst of the war against the
German-fascist invaders. This does not mean, of course, that the fourth
year of the war does not
differ from the preceding three years of war in its results. On the
contrary, there is a radical difference between them.
preceding two years of the war were years when the German forces were
on the offensive and when they advanced into the interior of our
country – years when the Red Army was compelled to fight defensive
actions – and whereas the third year of the war was a year of radical
change on our front, when the Red Army launched powerful offensive
actions, smashed the Germans in a number of decisive battles, cleared
the German troops out of two-thirds of the Soviet territory and
compelled them to pass to the defensive while the Red Army was still
waging war on the German forces single-handed without substantial
support from the Allies – the fourth year of war has been a year of
decisive victories over the German forces for the Soviet armies and the
armies of our Allies, a year in which the Germans, now compelled to
fight on two fronts, found themselves flung back to the German
In the upshot, this year has ended in the expulsion of the German
forces from the Soviet Union, France, Belgium and Central Italy, and
the transfer of hostilities to German territory.
The decisive successes of the Red Army this year and the expulsion of
the Germans from Soviet territory were predetermined by the succession
of shattering blows which our troops dealt the German forces, beginning
as far back as last January and continuing throughout the year under
The first blow was struck by our troops in January this year at
Leningrad and Novgorod, when the Red Army broke up the permanent German
defences and flung the enemy back to the Baltic. This blow resulted in
the liberation of the Leningrad Region.
The second blow was struck in February and March this year on the River
Bug, when the Red Army routed the German forces and flung them beyond
the Dniester. As a result of this blow the Ukraine west of the Dnieper
was freed of the German-fascist invaders.
The third blow was struck in April and May this year in the area of the
Crimea, when the German troops were flung into the Black Sea. As a
result of this blow the Crimea and Odessa were delivered from German
The fourth blow was struck in June this year in the area of Karelia,
when the Red Army routed the Finnish forces, liberated Vyborg and
Petrozavodsk, and flung the Finns back into the interior of Finland.
This blow resulted in the liberation of the greater part of the
Karelo-Finnish Soviet Republic.
The fifth blow was struck at the Germans in June and July this year,
when the Red Army utterly routed the German forces at Vitebsk, Bobruisk
and Mogilev; this blow culminated in the encirclement of thirty German
divisions at Minsk. As a result of this blow our forces (a) liberated
the whole of the Byelorussian Soviet Republic, (b) gained the Vistula
and liberated a considerable part of our Ally Poland, (c) gained the
Niemen and liberated the greater part of the Lithuanian Soviet
Republic; and (d) forced the Niemen and approached the frontiers of
The sixth blow was struck in July and August this year in the area of
the West Ukraine, when the Red Army routed the German forces at Lvov
and flung them beyond the San and the Vistula. As a result of this
blow: (a) the Western Ukraine was liberated, and (b) our troops forced
the Vistula and set up a strong bridgehead beyond it west of Sandomir.
The seventh blow was struck in August this year in the Kishinev and
Jassy area, when our troops utterly routed the German and Rumanian
forces. It culminated in the encirclement of 22 German divisions at
Kishinev, this number not including Rumanian divisions. As a result of
this blow: (a) the Moldavian Soviet Republic was liberated, (b)
Germany’s Rumanian ally was put out of action and declared war on
Germany and Hungary, (c) Germany’s Bulgarian ally was put out of action
and likewise declared war on Germany, (d) the road was opened for our
troops to Hungary, Germany’s last ally in Europe, and (e) the
opportunity arose to reach out a helping hand to our Ally Yugoslavia,
against the German invaders.
The eighth blow was struck in September and October this year in the
Baltics, when the Red Army routed the German forces at Tallinn and Riga
and drove them from the Baltics. As a result of this blow (a) the
Esthonian Soviet Republic was liberated, (b) the greater part of the
Latvian Soviet Republic was liberated, (c) Germany’s Finnish ally was
put out of action and declared war on Germany, and (d) over 30 German
divisions found themselves cut off from Prussia and gripped in pincers
between Tukums and Libava where they are now being hammered to a finish
by our troops.
In October this year the ninth blow was launched by our troops between
the Tisza and the Danube in the area of Hungary; its purpose is to put
Hungary out of the war and turn her against Germany. As a result of
this blow, which has not yet been consummated: (a) our forces rendered
direct assistance to our Ally Yugoslavia, in driving out the Germans
and liberating Belgrade; (b) our troops obtained the opportunity of
crossing the Carpathians and stretching out a helping hand to our Ally
the Czechoslovak Republic, part of whose territory has already been
freed from the German invaders.
Lastly, at the end of October this year a blow was dealt at the German
troops in Northern Finland, when the German troops were knocked out of
the Pechenga area and our troops, pursuing the Germans, entered the
territory of Norway, our Ally.
I shall not give figures of losses in killed and prisoners which the
enemy sustained in these operations, or the numbers of guns, tanks,
aircraft, shells and machine-guns captured by our troops. You are
probably acquainted with these figures from the Communiqués of
the Soviet Information Bureau.
Such are the principal operations carried out by the Red Army during
the past year, operations which have led to the expulsion of the German
forces from our country.
As a result of these operations as many as 120 divisions of the Germans
and their allies have been routed and put out of action. Instead of the
257 divisions that faced our front last year, of which 207 were German,
we now have against our front – after all the “total” and “super-total
mobilizations” – a total of only 204 German and Hungarian divisions, the
German divisions numbering no more than 180.
It must be admitted that in this war Hitler Germany with her fascist
army has proved to be a more powerful, crafty and experienced adversary
than Germany and her army were in any war of the past. It should be
added that in this war the Germans succeeded in exploiting the
productive forces of nearly the whole of Europe and the quite
considerable armies of their vassal states.
And, if in spite of these
favourable conditions for the prosecution of the war, Germany
nevertheless finds herself on the brink of imminent destruction, the
explanation is that her chief adversary, the Soviet Union, has
surpassed Hitler Germany in strength.
What must be regarded as a new factor in the war against Hitler Germany
this past year is that this year the Red Army has not been operating
against the German forces single-handed, as was the case in previous
years, but together with the forces of our Allies. The Teheran
Conference was not held for nothing. The decision of the Teheran
Conference on a joint blow at Germany from west, east and south began
to be carried out with astounding precision.
Simultaneously with the
summer operations of the Red Army on the Soviet-German Front, the
Allied forces launched the invasion of France and organized powerful
offensive operations which compelled Hitler Germany to wage war on two
fronts. The troops and Navy of our Allies accomplished a mass landing
operation on the coast of France that was unparalleled in history for
scope and organization, and overcame the German fortifications with
Thus, Germany found herself gripped in a vice between two fronts. As
was to be expected, the enemy failed to withstand the joint blows of
the Red Army and the Allied forces. The enemy’s resistance was broken,
and in a short time his troops were thrust out of Central Italy,
France, Belgium and the Soviet Union. The enemy was flung back to the
There can be no doubt that without the opening of the Second Front in
Europe, which holds as much as 75 German divisions, our troops would
not have been able to break the resistance of the German forces and
thrust them out of the Soviet Union in such a short time. But it is
equally indubitable that without the powerful offensive operations of
the Red Army in the summer of this year, which held as many as 200
German divisions, the forces of our Allies could not have coped so
quickly with the German forces and thrust them out of Central Italy,
France and Belgium.
The task is to keep Germany gripped in this vice between the two fronts. This is the key to victory.
If the Red Army was able successfully to fulfil its duty to its country
and drive the Germans from the Soviet land, it was because of the
unreserved support it received in the rear from our whole country, from
all the peoples of our country. “Everything for the Front!” has been
the watchword this year in the selfless work of all Soviet
people – workers, peasants, intellectuals – as well as in the directing
activities of our Government and Party bodies.
The past year has been marked by fresh successes in industry,
agriculture and transport, by further progress in our war economy. With
the war in its fourth year, our factories are producing several
times as many tanks, planes, guns, mortars and ammunition as in its
opening phase. In the rehabilitation of agriculture the most difficult
period lies behind us. With the fertile lands of the Don and Kuban
restored to our country, after the liberation of the Ukraine, our
agriculture is recovering rapidly from its grave losses.
railways have stood a strain that the transport of other countries
would hardly be able to bear.
All this indicates that the economic
foundation of the Soviet State has proved to possess infinitely greater
vitality than the economy of the enemy states.
The Socialist system born of the October Revolution has lent our people
and our Army a great, invincible strength. Despite the heavy burden of
this war, despite the temporary occupation by the Germans of very large
and economically important parts of the country, the Soviet State did
not reduce the supply of arms and ammunition for the front as the war
proceeded, but increased it from year to year. To-day the Red Army has
not less but more tanks, guns and planes than the German army. As for
quality, our war material is far superior to that of the enemy in this
respect. Just as the Red Army in its long and arduous single-handed
struggle won military victory over the fascist forces, so the working
people of the Soviet rear won an economic victory over the enemy in
their long fight against Hitler Germany and her associates.
The Soviet people have denied themselves many necessities,
have consciously accepted serious material privations, in order to give
more for the front. The unexampled hardships of the present war have
not broken, but further tempered the iron will and fearless spirit of
the Soviet people. Our people has justly won for itself the fame of a
heroic nation. Our working class gives all its strength for the cause of victory,
constantly perfects the technique of production, increases the capacity
of industrial enterprises, erects new mills and factories. The working
class of the Soviet Union has a great labour exploit to its credit in
the present war.
Our intellectuals proceed boldly along the road of innovation in the
sphere of technique and culture, successfully promoting modern science,
displaying the creative spirit in applying its achievements to the
production of munitions for the Red Army. By their creative work the
Soviet intellectuals have made an invaluable contribution to the
An army cannot fight and win without modern arms, but neither can it
fight and win without bread, without food. Thanks to the solicitude of
the collective farm peasantry, the Red Army is experiencing no shortage
of food in this fourth year of war. Men and women collective farmers
are supplying the workers and intellectuals with food, and industry
with raw materials, making it possible for factories and mills
producing arms and equipment for the front to function normally. Our
collective farm peasantry, actively and fully conscious of its duty to
its Motherland, is helping the Red Army to achieve victory over the
The matchless labour exploits of Soviet women and of our splendid youth
will go down in history, for it is they who have borne the brunt of the
work in the factories and mills, on the collective and state farms.
For the sake of the honour and independence of the Motherland Soviet
women, young men and girls are displaying true valour and heroism on
the labour front. They have shown themselves worthy of them fathers and
sons, husbands and brothers who are defending the Motherland against
the German-fascist fiends. The labour of Soviet people in the rear, like the immortal deeds of our
soldiers at the front, are rooted in the fervent exploits and
life-giving spirit of Soviet patriotism.
The strength of Soviet patriotism lies in the fact that it is based not
on racial or nationalistic prejudices, but on the peoples’ profound
loyalty and devotion to their Soviet Motherland, on the fraternal
partnership of the working people of all the nationalities in our
country. Soviet patriotism harmoniously combines the national
traditions of the peoples and the common vital interests of all the
working people of the Soviet Union. Far from dividing them, Soviet
patriotism welds all the nations and peoples of our country into a
single fraternal family. This should be regarded as the basis of the
inviolable friendship of the peoples of the Soviet Union which is
growing ever stronger.
At the same time the peoples of the U.S.S.R.
respect the rights and independence of the peoples of foreign countries
and have always shown themselves willing to live in peace and
friendship with neighbouring states. This should be regarded as the
basis of the contacts growing and gaining strength between our State
and the freedom-loving peoples.
The reason Soviet men and women hate
the German invaders is not because they are people of different
nationality, but because they have brought immeasurable calamity and
suffering on our people and on all freedom-loving peoples. It is an old
saying of our people: “The wolf is not beaten because he is grey, but
because he ate the sheep.”
The German-fascists chose the misanthropic race theory for their
ideological weapon, in the expectation that by preaching bestial
nationalism they would create the moral and political conditions for
the domination of the German invaders over the enslaved peoples.
Actually, however, the policy of racial hatred pursued by the
Hitlerites has proved a source of internal weakness and international
isolation for the German-fascist State.
The ideology and policy of
racial hatred have been a factor in the disintegration of the Hitlerite
bandit bloc. It cannot be considered an accident that not only the
subjugated peoples of France, Yugoslavia, Poland, Czechoslovakia,
Greece, Belgium, Denmark, Norway and the Netherlands have risen against
the German imperialists, but also Hitler’s former vassals – the Italians,
Rumanians, Finns and Bulgarians. By their savage policy, the Hitler
clique have set all the peoples of the world against Germany; and the
so-called “chosen German race” has become the object of universal
In this war the Hitlerites have sustained not only a military defeat,
but also a moral and political defeat. The ideology of equality of all
races and nations, which has taken firm root in our country, the
ideology of friendship among the peoples has emerged completely
victorious over the Hitlerite ideology of bestial nationalism and
Today, when the Patriotic War is drawing to its victorious conclusion,
the historic role of the Soviet people is revealed in its full
greatness. It is universally acknowledged now that by their selfless
struggle the Soviet people have saved the civilization of Europe from
the fascist vandals.
That is the great service rendered by the Soviet
people to the victory of mankind.
The past year has been a year of triumph of the common cause of the
anti-German coalition for the sake of which the peoples of the Soviet
Union, Great Britain and the United States of America have united in
fighting alliance. It has been a year of consolidation of the unity of
the three main Powers and of co-ordination of their actions against
The decision of the Teheran Conference on joint actions against Germany
and the brilliant realization of that decision are one of the striking
indications of the consolidation of the front of the anti-Hitler
Coalition. There are few instances in history of plans for large-scale
military operations undertaken in joint actions against a common enemy
being carried out so fully and with such precision as the plan for a
joint blow against Germany drawn up at the Teheran Conference.
There can be no doubt that without unity of opinion and co-ordination
of actions of the three Great Powers, the Teheran decision could not
have been realized so fully and with such precision. Nor on the other
hand can there be any doubt that the successful realization of the
Teheran decision was bound to serve to consolidate the front of the
An equally striking indication of the solidity of the front of the
United Nations is to be seen in the decisions of the Dumbarton Oaks
Conference on post-war security. There is talk of differences between
the three Powers on certain security problems. Differences do exist, of
course, and they will arise on a number of other issues as well.
Differences of opinion occur even among people in one and the same
Party. They are all the more bound to occur between representatives of
different States and different Parties.
The surprising thing is not
that differences exist, but that they are so few, and that as a rule in
practically every case they are resolved in a spirit of unity and
coordination among the three Great Powers. What matters is not that
there are differences, but that these differences do not transgress the
bounds of what the interests of the unity of the three Great Powers
allow, and that, in the long run, they are resolved in accordance with
the interests of that unity.
It is known that more serious differences
existed between us over the opening of the Second Front. But it is also
known that in the end these differences were resolved in a spirit of
complete accord. The same thing may be said of the differences at the
Dumbarton Oaks Conference. What is characteristic of this Conference is
not that certain differences were revealed there, but that nine-tenths
of the security problems were solved at this Conference in a spirit of
complete unanimity. That is why I think that the decisions of the
Dumbarton Oaks Conference are to be regarded as a striking indication
of the solidity of the front of the anti-German Coalition.
A still more striking indication of the consolidation of the front of
the United Nations are the recent talks in Moscow with Mr. Churchill,
the head of the British Government, and Mr. Eden, the British Foreign
Secretary, held in an atmosphere of friendship and a spirit of perfect
Throughout the war the Hitlerites have made frantic efforts to cause
disunity among the United Nations and set them at loggerheads, to stir
up suspicion and unfriendly feeling among them, to weaken their war
effort by mutual distrust, and, if possible, by conflict between them
These ambitions of the Hitlerite politicians are easy enough
to understand. For them there is no greater danger than the unity of
the United Nations in the struggle against Hitlerite imperialism, and
for them there would have been no greater military and political
success than the splitting of the Allied Powers in their struggle
against the common enemy.
It is known, however, how futile the efforts
of the fascist politicians to disrupt the alliance of the Great Powers
have proved. That means that the alliance between the U.S.S.R., Great
Britain and the United States of America is founded not on casual,
transitory considerations, but on vital and lasting interests. There
can be no doubt that, having stood the strain of more than three
years of war and being sealed with the blood of the nations risen in
defence of their liberty and honour, the fighting alliance of the
democratic powers will all the more certainly stand the strain of the
concluding phase of the war.
The past year, however, has been not only a year of consolidation of
the anti-German front of the Allied Powers, but also a year of its
extension. It cannot be considered an accident that after Italy other
allies of Germany – Finland, Rumania and Bulgaria – were also put out of
the war. It should be noted that these States not only got out of the
war but broke with Germany and declared war on her, thus joining the
front of the United Nations. This signifies, undoubtedly, an extension
of the front of the United Nations against Hitler Germany. Without
doubt Germany’s last ally in Europe, Hungary, will also be put out of
action in the nearest future. This will mean the complete isolation of
Hitler Germany in Europe and the inevitability of her collapse.
The United Nations face the victorious conclusion of the war against
Hitler Germany. The war against Germany will be won by the United
Nations – of that there can no longer be any doubt today.
To win the war against Germany is to accomplish a great historic task.
But to win the war does not in itself mean to ensure for the peoples a
lasting peace and guaranteed security in the future. The task is not
only to win the war but also to make new aggression and new war
impossible – if not for ever, then at least for a long time to come.
After her defeat Germany will, of course, be disarmed, both in the
economic and in the military political sense. It would, however, be
naïve to think that she will not attempt to restore her might and
launch new aggression. It is common knowledge that the German
chieftains are already now preparing for a new war. History shows that
a short period – some 20 or 30 years – is enough for Germany to recover
from defeat and re-establish her might. What means are there to
preclude fresh aggression on Germany’s part, and if war should start
nevertheless, to nip it in the bud and give it no opportunity to
develop into a big war?
This question is the more appropriate since history shows that
aggressor nations, the nations which attack, are usually better
prepared for a new war than peace-loving nations which, having no
interest in a new war, are usually behindhand with their preparations
for it. It is a fact that in the present war the aggressor nations had
an army of invasion all ready even before the war broke out – while the
peace-loving nations did not even have adequate armies to cover their
One cannot regard as an accident such distasteful facts
as the Pearl Harbour “incident,” the loss of the Philippines and other
Pacific Islands, the loss of Hong Kong and Singapore, when Japan, as
the aggressor nation, proved to be better prepared for war than Great
Britain and the United States of America, which pursued a policy of
peace. Nor can one regard as an accident such a distasteful fact as the
loss of the Ukraine, Byelorussia and the Baltics in the very first year
of the war, when Germany, as the aggressor nation, proved better
prepared for war than the peace-loving Soviet Union.
It would be
naïve to explain these facts by the personal qualities of the
Japanese and the Germans, their superiority over the British, the
Americans and the Russians, their foresight, etc. The reason here is
not personal qualities but the fact that aggressor nations, interested
in a new war, being nations that prepare for war over a long time and
accumulate forces for it, usually are, and are bound to be, better
prepared for war than peace-loving nations which have no interest in a
new war. That is natural and understandable. This is, if you like, a
law of history, which it would be dangerous to ignore.
Accordingly it is not to be denied that in the future the peace-loving
nations may once more find themselves caught off their guard by
aggression unless, of course, they work out special measures right now
which can avert it. Well, what means are there to preclude fresh aggression on Germany’s
part and, if war should start nevertheless, to stifle it at its very
beginning and give it no opportunities to develop into a big war.
There is only one means to this end, apart from the complete
disarmament of the aggressor nations: that is to establish a special
organization made up of representatives of the peace-loving nations for
the defence of peace and safeguarding of security; to put at the
disposal of the directing body of this organization the necessary
minimum of armed forces required to avert aggression, and to oblige
this organization to employ these armed forces without delay if it
becomes necessary, to avert or stop aggression, and to punish those
guilty of aggression.
This must not be a repetition of the sad memory of the League of
Nations, which had neither the right nor the means to avert aggression.
It will be a new, special, fully authorized international organization
having at its command everything necessary to defend peace and avert
Can we expect the actions of this world organization to be sufficiently
effective? They will be effective if the great Powers which have borne
the brunt of the war against Hitler Germany continue to act in a spirit
of unanimity and accord. They will not be effective if this essential
condition is violated.
Comrades! The Soviet people and the Red Army are successfully executing the tasks
which have confronted them in the course of the Patriotic War. The Red
Army has worthily fulfilled its patriotic duty and liberated our
Motherland from the enemy: henceforth and for ever our soil is free of
the Hitlerite pollution. Now remains its last, final mission: to
complete, together with the armies of our Allies, the defeat of the
German-fascist army, to finish off the fascist beast in its own den,
and to hoist the flag of victory over Berlin.
There is reason to expect that this task will be fulfilled
by the Red Army in the none too distant future.
Long live our victorious Red Army!
Long live our glorious Navy!
Long live the mighty Soviet people!
Long live our great Motherland!
Death to the German-fascist invaders!
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